PMID: 7932682Jun 1, 1994Paper

The effect of instructions on cognitive strategies and performance in biofeedback

Journal of Behavioral Medicine
S W Utz


An experimental study was conducted in which 40 subjects, randomly assigned to four groups, were given differing instructions about using auditory biofeedback to lower forehead muscle tension. During each of three sessions, measures were taken of forehead electromyograph (EMG) and ability to discriminate and control muscle tension in order to measure learning during biofeedback. Cognitive strategies used by subjects were measured by taped verbal reports which were judged using four criteria based on two models of learning in biofeedback: "feedforward" and "feedback." Data were analyzed by chi-square, ANOVA, ANCOVA, and content analysis. Results indicate that subjects used predominantly a feedforward type of learning strategy in all four groups. Implications for teaching during biofeedback are discussed.


Jan 1, 1978·Annual Review of Psychology·N E Miller
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Jun 1, 1986·Biofeedback and Self-regulation·T G DunnS W Utz
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Apr 1, 1980·Journal of Personality Assessment·P C KendallA J Finch

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