The effects of codon bias and optimality on mRNA and protein regulation.

Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS
Fabian Hia, Osamu Takeuchi

Abstract

The central dogma of molecular biology entails that genetic information is transferred from nucleic acid to proteins. Notwithstanding retro-transcribing genetic elements, DNA is transcribed to RNA which in turn is translated into proteins. Recent advancements have shown that each stage is regulated to control protein abundances for a variety of essential physiological processes. In this regard, mRNA regulation is essential in fine-tuning or calibrating protein abundances. In this review, we would like to discuss one of several mRNA-intrinsic features of mRNA regulation that has been gaining traction of recent-codon bias and optimality. Specifically, we address the effects of codon bias with regard to codon optimality in several biological processes centred on translation, such as mRNA stability and protein folding among others. Finally, we examine how different organisms or cell types, through this system, are able to coordinate physiological pathways to respond to a variety of stress or growth conditions.

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