PMID: 46337Jan 4, 1975

The essential role of glucagon in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus

Roger H Unger, L Orci


The following evidence suggests that diabetes mellitus may not be the simple consequence of relative or absolute insulin deficiency by itself, but may require the presence of glucagon: (1) relative or absolute hyperglucogonaemia has been identified in every form of endogenous hyperglycaemia, including total pancreatectomy in dogs; (2) insulin lack in the absence of glucagon does not cause endogenous hyperglycaemia, but when endogenous or exogenous glucagon is present, it quickly appears, irrespective of insulin levels at the time. These facts are compatible with a bihormonal-abnormality hypothesis, which holds that the major consequence of absolute or relative insulin lack is glucose underutilisation and that absolute or relative glucagon excess is the principal factor in the over-production of glucose in diabetes.


Jan 12, 2002·Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications·Janice C ParkerJohn D McNeish
Jan 1, 1981·Diabetologia·Roger H Unger
Oct 1, 1975·Diabetologia·V Leclercq-MeyerR Leclercq
Dec 1, 1976·Diabetologia·M L VillanuevaJ Marco
Dec 1, 1976·Diabetologia·J Ludvigsson, L G Heding
Dec 1, 1975·Diabetologia·A S LuyckxP J Lefebvre
Jun 1, 1979·Diabetologia·P J Lefebvre, A S Luyckx
May 1, 1978·Acta diabetologica latina·A TiengoG Crepaldi
Aug 30, 2008·Science in China. Series C, Life Sciences·C WenS Zhu
Apr 6, 2011·Diabetologia·J C Henquin, J Rahier
May 1, 1980·Injury·D P Cuthbertson
Dec 12, 2012·International Journal of Obesity : Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity·R Guardado-MendozaF Folli
Apr 28, 1977·The New England Journal of Medicine·Roger H Unger
Jun 2, 1977·The New England Journal of Medicine·A J BarnesD J Chisholm
Sep 8, 1977·The New England Journal of Medicine·Roger H Unger
Aug 31, 1978·The New England Journal of Medicine·P Raskin, Roger H Unger
Jun 25, 1981·The New England Journal of Medicine·Roger H Unger, L Orci
Aug 23, 2008·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·Helga EllingsgaardMarc Y Donath
Sep 10, 2008·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·Xinxin YuRoger H Unger
Aug 15, 2012·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·Young LeeRoger H Unger


Jul 1, 1975·The Journal of Clinical Investigation·H SasakiRoger H Unger
Feb 14, 1975·Science·R DobbsRoger H Unger
Apr 26, 1974·Science·D J KoerkerC C Gale
May 1, 1974·Endocrinology·W D HarveyRoger H Unger
Jan 1, 1969·Diabetes·A OhnedaRoger H Unger
Jan 1, 1980·Annual Review of Biochemistry·J D McGarry, D W Foster
May 1, 1972·Diabetes·Roger H UngerW A Muller

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