Aug 26, 2003

The evolution and formation of RH genes

Legal Medicine
Hiroshi Okuda, E Kajii


The Rh system clinically is one of the important blood groups. The major Rh antigens, which are constituted by over 40 types, are RhD, RhC/c, and RhE/e. Furthermore, Rh blood group system is characterized by the existence of many variants. It was considered that Rh blood group system was encoded on two genes termed the RHCE and RHD, which are composed of ten exons, respectively. It is inferred that the RHD gene encodes the RhD antigen and that the RHCE gene encodes the Rh C/c and RhE/e antigens. There are RHce, RHCe, RHcE and RHCE alleles as polymorphisms of RHCE gene. In 2000, the entire nucleotide sequences in all introns of both the RHD and RHCE genes were determined. Due to the new findings on RH genes, it is thought that multiple recombination (and/or gene conversion), nucleotide substitutions, small nucleotide gaps, replication slippage of microsatellite, large nucleotide gaps (due to Alu sequence) and the high level of the homology (%) between both RH genes are the important factors in the formation and evolution of both RH genes and Rh variants. Based on the advance of human genome project, the new interpretations on the evolution and formation of RH genes and Rh variants will be performed. Human Rh family (superfamily)...Continue Reading

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Mentioned in this Paper

Short Tandem Repeat
Rhd antigen
Hepatitis B e Antigens
Clinical Medicine
Antigen in Rh blood group system
Recombination, Genetic

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