Sep 7, 2000

The evolution of polyandry: multiple mating and female fitness in insects

Animal Behaviour
Göran Arnqvist, T Nilsson

Abstract

Theory suggests that male fitness generally increases steadily with mating rate, while one or a few matings are sufficient for females to maximize their reproductive success. Contrary to these predictions, however, females of the majority of insects mate multiply. We performed a meta-analysis of 122 experimental studies addressing the direct effects of multiple mating on female fitness in insects. Our results clearly show that females gain directly from multiple matings in terms of increased lifetime offspring production. Despite a negative effect of remating on female longevity in species without nuptial feeding, the positive effects (increased egg production rate and fertility) more than outweigh this negative effect for moderate mating rates. The average direct net fitness gain of multiple mating was as high as 30-70%. Therefore, the evolutionary maintenance of polyandry in insects can be understood solely in terms of direct effects. However, our results also strongly support the existence of an intermediate optimal female mating rate, beyond which a further elevated mating rate is deleterious. The existence of such optima implies that sexual conflict over the mating rate should be very common in insects, and that sexually a...Continue Reading

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Fertility
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Meta-Analysis (Publications)
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