Jul 1, 2016

The Evolutionary Histories of Antiretroviral Proteins SERINC3 and SERINC5 Do Not Support an Evolutionary Arms Race in Primates

Journal of Virology
Ben MurrellJoel O Wertheim

Abstract

Molecular evolutionary arms races between viruses and their hosts are important drivers of adaptation. These Red Queen dynamics have been frequently observed in primate retroviruses and their antagonists, host restriction factor genes, such as APOBEC3F/G, TRIM5-α, SAMHD1, and BST-2. Host restriction factors have experienced some of the most intense and pervasive adaptive evolution documented in primates. Recently, two novel host factors, SERINC3 and SERINC5, were identified as the targets of HIV-1 Nef, a protein crucial for the optimal infectivity of virus particles. Here, we compared the evolutionary fingerprints of SERINC3 and SERINC5 to those of other primate restriction factors and to a set of other genes with diverse functions. SERINC genes evolved in a manner distinct from the canonical arms race dynamics seen in the other restriction factors. Despite their antiviral activity against HIV-1 and other retroviruses, SERINC3 and SERINC5 have a relatively uneventful evolutionary history in primates. Restriction factors are host proteins that block viral infection and replication. Many viruses, like HIV-1 and related retroviruses, evolved accessory proteins to counteract these restriction factors. The importance of these intera...Continue Reading

Mentioned in this Paper

Cercopithecus sabaeus
Callithrix jacchus jacchus
Virus
Virus Diseases
Genome
Genes
Cercopithecus aethiops
Hormone Receptors, Cell Surface
Murine leukemia virus
Virion

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