The fetal thorax: noncardiac chest anomalies
Fetal thoracic anomalies often lead to pulmonary hypoplasia with subsequent fetal or neonatal demise. Therefore, in utero sonographic identification of these anomalies is important. Unlike cardiac anomalies, most noncardiac thoracic abnormalities are easily detected with ultrasound. An unusually small thorax is usually obvious to the experienced sonographer, and thoracic masses are commonly observed on the routinely obtained four-chamber view of the heart. This article reviews the many causes of pulmonary hypoplasia with an emphasis placed on thoracic masses. Many examples of pathological fetal thoracic conditions are provided as well as a listing of differential considerations with regard to sonographic appearances of chest masses.
Serial thoracic versus abdominal circumference ratios for the prediction of pulmonary hypoplasia in premature rupture of the membranes remote from term
Direct ultrasonographic measurement of fetal lung length in normal pregnancies and pregnancies complicated by prolonged rupture of membranes
Congenital bronchopulmonary vascular malformations: clinical application of a simple anatomical approach in 25 cases
Prenatal diagnosis and natural history of the fetus with a congenital diaphragmatic hernia: initial clinical experience
Successful prenatal treatment of non-immune hydrops fetalis due to congenital chylothorax. Case report
Lethal nonpulmonary anomalies associated with congenital diaphragmatic hernia: implications for early intrauterine surgery
Pathophysiology of congenital diaphragmatic hernia. IX: Correlation of surfactant maturation with fetal cortisol and triiodothyronine concentration
Hepatic interlobar fissure sonographically mimicking the diaphragm in a fetus with right congenital diaphragmatic hernia
Risk of congenital anomalies in pregnant users of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: A nested case-control study
Normal and hypoplastic fetal lungs: volumetric assessment with prenatal single-shot rapid acquisition with relaxation enhancement MR imaging
A nomogram of fetal lung volumes estimated by 3-dimensional ultrasonography using the rotational technique (virtual organ computer-aided analysis)
Birth defects encompass structural and functional alterations that occur during embryonic or fetal development and are present since birth. The cause may be genetic, environmental or unknown and can result in physical and/or mental impairment. Here is the latest research on birth defects.