PMID: 591701Jan 1, 1977

The future of Blue Cross

Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law
M Schonbrun


This paper analyzes the reasons for the rise and decline of Blue Cross, a unique American institution. Its inability to respond to the crisis in today's health system is described as nothing more than the failure of the ailing American health system to cure itself. The early rise of Blue Cross is attributed to its success in addressing pressing social needs: helping patients afford the costs of hospitalization and helping hospitals meet expenses. Its later decline is traced to several factors: the striking increase in the costs of health care; the rise of the state insurance commissioner; the anticipated passage of national health insurance; and the increased competition from commerical insurance carriers, specialty health care data and management firms and state governments. In concluding, the question is raised whether society should invest further in the future Blue Cross, a social institution which may have irrevocably lost the confidence of the general public, government and the health provider community. Four possible futures for Blue Cross are set forth: the outright collapse of several plans, a "Lockheed-type" bailout, a "Naderist" organization strongly allied with consumers, and a quasi-governmental agency.


Jan 1, 1997·Rehabilitation Nursing : the Official Journal of the Association of Rehabilitation Nurses·I D MontoyaW A Goodpastor

Related Concepts

Fees, Medical
Group Hospitalization
United States National Health Insurance
Blue Cross Blue Shield Insurance Plans

Trending Feeds


Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.

Alzheimer's Disease: MS4A

Variants within the membrane-spanning 4-domains subfamily A (MS4A) gene cluster have recently been implicated in Alzheimer's disease in genome-wide association studies. Here is the latest research on Alzheimer's disease and MS4A.

Pediculosis pubis

Pediculosis pubis is a disease caused by a parasitic insect known as Pthirus pubis, which infests human pubic hair, as well as other areas with hair including eye lashes. Here is the latest research.

Rh Isoimmunization

Rh isoimmunization is a potentially preventable condition that occasionally is associated with significant perinatal morbidity or mortality. Discover the latest research on Rh Isoimmunization here.

Genetic Screens in iPSC-derived Brain Cells

Genetic screening is a critical tool that can be employed to define and understand gene function and interaction. This feed focuses on genetic screens conducted using induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived brain cells. It also follows CRISPR-Cas9 approaches to generating genetic mutants as a means of understanding the effect of genetics on phenotype.

Enzyme Evolution

This feed focuses on molecular models of enzyme evolution and new approaches (such as adaptive laboratory evolution) to metabolic engineering of microorganisms. Here is the latest research.

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Chronic fatigue syndrome is a disease characterized by unexplained disabling fatigue; the pathology of which is incompletely understood. Discover the latest research on chronic fatigue syndrome here.

Pharmacology of Proteinopathies

This feed focuses on the pharmacology of proteinopathies - diseases in which proteins abnormally aggregate (i.e. Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, etc.). Discover the latest research in this field with this feed.

Alignment-free Sequence Analysis Tools

Alignment-free sequence analyses have been applied to problems ranging from whole-genome phylogeny to the classification of protein families, identification of horizontally transferred genes, and detection of recombined sequences. Here is the latest research.

Related Papers

The Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics : a Journal of the American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics
R R BovbjergC E Carroll
The American Journal of Occupational Therapy : Official Publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association
M Pizzi
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
J P Leigh, J Bernstein
© 2021 Meta ULC. All rights reserved