The Genome of Drosophila innubila Reveals Lineage-Specific Patterns of Selection in Immune Genes

Molecular Biology and Evolution
Tom HillRobert L Unckless


Pathogenic microbes can exert extraordinary evolutionary pressure on their hosts. They can spread rapidly and sicken or even kill their host to promote their own proliferation. Because of this strong selective pressure, immune genes are some of the fastest evolving genes across metazoans, as highlighted in mammals and insects. Drosophila melanogaster serves as a powerful model for studying host/pathogen evolution. While Drosophila melanogaster are frequently exposed to various pathogens, little is known about D. melanogaster's ecology, or if they are representative of other Drosophila species in terms of pathogen pressure. Here, we characterize the genome of Drosophila innubila, a mushroom-feeding species highly diverged from D. melanogaster and investigate the evolution of the immune system. We find substantial differences in the rates of evolution of immune pathways between D. innubila and D. melanogaster. Contrasting what was previously found for D. melanogaster, we find little evidence of rapid evolution of the antiviral RNAi genes and high rates of evolution in the Toll pathway. This suggests that, while immune genes tend to be rapidly evolving in most species, the specific genes that are fastest evolving may depend either...Continue Reading


Sep 21, 1979·Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Containing Papers of a Biological Character·R Dawkins, J R Krebs
Oct 1, 1974·The Journal of General Virology·C C Payne
Jun 1, 1993·Journal of Neurobiology·H KeshishianM E Halpern
May 10, 2000·Nature Genetics·Michael AshburnerG Sherlock
Apr 3, 2001·Nature Reviews. Genetics·D A Kimbrell, B Beutler
Jun 21, 2001·Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications·S Ekengren, Dan Hultmark
Jul 24, 2002·Nucleic Acids Research·Kazutaka KatohTakashi Miyata
Dec 24, 2002·Current Opinion in Immunology·Dan Hultmark
Nov 7, 2003·Nature·Jules A Hoffmann
Oct 29, 2004·Bioinformatics·Sergei L Kosakovsky PondSpencer V Muse
Dec 9, 2004·International Immunology·Kiyoshi Takeda, Shizuo Akira
May 10, 2005·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·Robert A ZambonLouisa P Wu
Jun 2, 2005·Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution·K A DyerJ Jaenike
Sep 13, 2005·Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution·K A Dyer, J Jaenike
Mar 21, 2006·Current Biology : CB·Darren J ObbardTom J Little
Jun 20, 2006·Molecular Ecology·Jeffrey M GoodTherese A Markow
May 8, 2007·Molecular Biology and Evolution·Ziheng Yang
Nov 8, 2007·Nature Genetics·Timothy B SacktonAndrew G Clark
Nov 13, 2007·Nature·Drosophila 12 Genomes ConsortiumIain MacCallum
Dec 13, 2007·Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology·Gyorgy Hutvagner, Martin J Simard
Aug 23, 2008·Journal of Evolutionary Biology·J Jaenike, K A Dyer
Oct 18, 2008·Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences·Darren J ObbardFrancis M Jiggins
May 20, 2009·Bioinformatics·Heng Li, Richard Durbin
May 23, 2009·Journal of Invertebrate Pathology·Yongjie Wang, Johannes A Jehle
Oct 24, 2009·PLoS Genetics·Darren J ObbardFrancis M Jiggins
Feb 12, 2010·Bioinformatics·Thomas D Wu, Serban Nacu
May 12, 2010·Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology·Charles Hetru, Jules A Hoffmann
Jun 30, 2010·PLoS Genetics·Talia KarasovDmitri A Petrov
Aug 14, 2010·Nature Reviews. Immunology·Shou-Wei Ding
Dec 24, 2010·Science·modENCODE ConsortiumManolis Kellis
Jan 7, 2011·The Journal of Immunology : Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists·Susanna ValanneMika Rämet
Nov 5, 2011·PloS One·Robert L Unckless

Related Concepts

Cell Proliferation
Toll Signaling Pathway
Russula emetica
Drosophila melanogaster

Trending Feeds


Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Chronic fatigue syndrome is a disease characterized by unexplained disabling fatigue; the pathology of which is incompletely understood. Discover the latest research on chronic fatigue syndrome here.

Synapse Loss as Therapeutic Target in MS

As we age, the number of synapses present in the human brain starts to decline, but in neurodegenerative diseases this occurs at an accelerated rate. In MS, it has been shown that there is a reduction in synaptic density, which presents a potential target for treatment. Here is the latest research on synapse loss as a therapeutic target in MS.

Artificial Intelligence in Cardiac Imaging

Artificial intelligence (ai) techniques are increasingly applied to cardiovascular (cv) medicine in cardiac imaging analysis. Here is the latest research.

Position Effect Variegation

Position Effect Variagation occurs when a gene is inactivated due to its positioning near heterochromatic regions within a chromosome. Discover the latest research on Position Effect Variagation here.

Social Learning

Social learning involves learning new behaviors through observation, imitation and modeling. Follow this feed to stay up to date on the latest research.

Cell Atlas of the Human Eye

Constructing a cell atlas of the human eye will require transcriptomic and histologic analysis over the lifespan. This understanding will aid in the study of development and disease. Find the latest research pertaining to the Cell Atlas of the Human Eye here.

Single Cell Chromatin Profiling

Techniques like ATAC-seq and CUT&Tag have the potential to allow single cell profiling of chromatin accessibility, histones, and TFs. This will provide novel insight into cellular heterogeneity and cell states. Discover the latest research on single cell chromatin profiling here.

Genetic Screens in iPSC-derived Brain Cells

Genetic screening is a critical tool that can be employed to define and understand gene function and interaction. This feed focuses on genetic screens conducted using induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived brain cells.