PMID: 8736May 1, 1976

The haemolytic effect of phallolysin

Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
R SeegerL Feulner


Phallolysin from the toadstool, Amanita phalloides, is a basic protein that causes direct haemolysis of red cells. The dose-response curve is steep; the pH optimum is in the weakly acid range. The rate of haemolysis increases with the concentration of the lysin, the optimal temperature is 20 degrees C. The percentage haemolysis-time curves are S-shaped. Haemolysis is of the non-osmotic type. Ca2+ is not required but inhibits haemolysis in a concentration-dependent fashion, as do Mg2+ and Zn2+. The red cell sensitivity of various animal species decreases in the following sequence:mouse greater than rabbit = guniea pig greater than rat greater than man greater than dog approximately or equal to pig greater than sheep = cattle. Red cells of cattle and sheep are largely resistant. Phallolysin is virtually not consumed on haemalysis: the amount of haemoglobin released increases with the number of red cells applied; on repeated addition of fresh red cells the haemolysate retains its full activity. Phallolysin is not inhibited by serum, albumin, cholesterol, lecithin, cephalin or sphingomyelin; inhibition by red cell ghosts of phallolysin haemolysis is considerably less than that of digitonin haemolysis. At sublytic concentrations pha...Continue Reading


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