Nov 5, 2019

The HIV protease inhibitor darunavir prevents kidney injury via HIV-independent mechanisms

Scientific Reports
Xiaobo GaoMichael J Ross


HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) is a rapidly progressive kidney disease that is caused by HIV infection of renal epithelial cells with subsequent expression of viral genes, including vpr. Antiretroviral therapy ameliorates HIVAN without eradicating HIV from the kidneys and the mechanism by which it protects kidneys is poorly understood. Since HIV protease inhibitors have "off target" cellular effects, we studied whether darunavir, the most commonly prescribed protease inhibitor, protects kidneys from HIV-induced injury via mechanisms independent of HIV protease and viral replication. Renal epithelial cells were transduced with lentiviruses encoding HIV (lacking protease and reverse transcriptase), Vpr, or vector control. Darunavir attenuated HIV and Vpr-induced activation of Stat3, Src, Erk, and cytokines, which are critical for HIVAN pathogenesis. We then studied HIV-transgenic mice, which develop HIVAN in the absence of HIV protease or reverse transcriptase. Mice were treated with darunavir, zidovudine, darunavir + zidovudine, or control. Darunavir and darunavir + zidovudine reduced albuminuria and histologic kidney injury and normalized expression of dysregulated proteins. RNA-seq analyses demonstrated that darunavir supp...Continue Reading

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Mentioned in this Paper

Src-Family Kinases
Immune Response
Cellular Process
Epithelial Cell of Renal Tubule
HIV Protease Inhibitors
Peptide Hydrolases
Pathogenesis of HIV Malignancy
Virus Replication

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