DOI: 10.1101/19010132Oct 29, 2019Paper

The Impact of Scaling up Dolutegravir on Antiretroviral Resistance in South Africa

MedRxiv : the Preprint Server for Health Sciences
Anthony HauserRoger D Kouyos


Background: Rising resistance of HIV-1 to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) threatens the success of the global scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART). The switch to WHO-recommended dolutegravir (DTG)-based regimens could reduce this threat due to DTG's high genetic barrier to resistance. We used mathematical modelling to examine the impact of the scale-up of DTG-based ART on NNRTI pre-treatment drug resistance (PDR) in South Africa, 2019-2040. Methods and results: We adapted the MARISA (Modelling Antiretroviral drug Resistance In South Africa) model, an epidemiological model of the transmission of NNRTI resistance in South Africa. We modelled the introduction of DTG in 2019 under two scenarios: DTG as first-line regimen for ART-initiators, or DTG for all patients, including patients on suppressive NNRTI-based ART. Due to safety concerns related to DTG during pregnancy, we assessed the impact of prescribing DTG to all men and in addition to i) women beyond reproductive age, ii) women beyond reproductive age or using contraception, and iii) all women. The model projections show that, compared to the continuation of NNRTI-based ART, introducing DTG would lead to a reduction in NNRTI resistance in all scen...Continue Reading

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