The impact of the microbiota-gut-brain axis on Alzheimer's disease pathophysiology.

Pharmacological Research : the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Tejaswini DoifodeTatiana Barichello

Abstract

The gut microbiota is a complex ecosystem that comprises of more than 100 trillion symbiotic microbial cells. The microbiota, the gut, and the brain form an association, 'the microbiota-gut-brain axis,' and synchronize the gut with the central nervous system and modify the behavior and brain immune homeostasis. The bidirectional communication between gut and brain occurs via the immune system, the vagus nerve, the enteric nervous system, and microbial metabolites, including short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), proteins, and tryptophan metabolites. Recent studies have implicated the gut microbiota in many neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this review, we present an overview of gut microbiota, including Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, SCFA, tryptophan, bacterial composition, besides age-related changes in gut microbiota composition, the microbiota-gut-brain axis pathways, the role of gut metabolites in amyloid-beta clearance, and gut microbiota modulation from experimental and clinical AD models. Understanding the role of the microbiota may provide new targets for treatment to delay the onset, progression, or reverse AD, and may help in reducing the prevalence of AD.

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Citations

Jun 1, 2021·Frontiers in Nutrition·Rita BusinaroPedro Zuzarte
Jun 5, 2021·Neurobiology of Disease·Miguel A PappollaBurkhard Poeggeler
Jul 3, 2021·Molecules : a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry·Zhicheng ZhangXin Zhang
Jul 24, 2021·Pharmacological Research : the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society·Anderson Dos Santos RamosJuliana Franco Almeida
Nov 11, 2021·Pharmaceutical Patent Analyst·Hermann Am Mucke

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