The influence of the Gyne-T 380S intrauterine contraceptive device (IUD) on menstrual blood loss (MBL) and iron status (hemoglobin, hematocrit, red cell count and indices, and serum ferritin) was evaluated. MBL was determined objectively by the alkaline hematin method in 18 women (mean age 37.1 +/- 1.6 yr, range 22-46 yr) before and 3, 6 and 12 months after insertion of a Gyne-T 380S IUD. MBL prior to IUD insertion was 59 +/- 8 ml and increased to 91 +/- 11 ml (p < 0.01) 3 months after insertion. MBL then remained largely unchanged during the remainder of the observation period (6 months, 94 +/- 12 ml; 12 months, 92 +/- 13 ml). The percentage increase in MBL at the respective measurement points ranged between 54 and 59% which is comparable with previous reports regarding the increase in MBL associated with the use of a copper IUD. There were no significant changes recorded in iron status parameters during the 12-month observation period following IUD insertion. Based on the results of the present study, women from developed countries apparently tolerate an increased MBL of approximately 55% without developing iron deficiency anemia. Iron stores were unchanged indicating an adequate adaptive increase in intestinal iron absorption.
Longer though lighter menstrual and intermenstural bleeding with copper as compared to inert intrauterine devices
Prolonged intrauterine contraception: a seven-year randomized study of the levonorgestrel 20 mcg/day (LNg 20) and the Copper T380 Ag IUDS
A longitudinal study of contraception and pregnancy outcome in a representative sample of young Swedish women
The TCu380A, TCu220C, multiload 250 and Nova T IUDS at 3,5 and 7 years of use--results from three randomized multicentre trials. World Health Organization. Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction: Task Force on the Safety and Efficacy of Fertility Regulating Methods
The influence of copper surface area on menstrual blood loss and iron status in women fitted with an IUD
Comparative quantitation of menstrual blood loss with the Lippes Loop, Dalkon Shield, and copper T intrauterine devices
Levonorgestrel-releasing and copper-releasing (Nova T) IUDs during five years of use: a randomized comparative trial
The long-term effects of copper surface area on menstrual blood loss and iron status in women fitted with an IUD
Acceptability of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system after discontinuation of previous contraception: results of a French clinical study in women aged 35 to 45 years
Hemoglobin and serum ferritin levels in women using copper-releasing or levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine devices: a systematic review
Intrauterine devices and endometrial cancer risk: a pooled analysis of the Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium
Association of short-term bleeding and cramping patterns with long-acting reversible contraceptive method satisfaction
Can intrauterine contraceptive devices lead to VulvoVaginal Candidiasis (VVC) and Anemia in Iranian new users?
Levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS 12) for prevention of pregnancy for up to five years
Effect of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system on cardiovascular risk markers among women with thrombophilia or previous venous thromboembolism
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for heavy bleeding or pain associated with intrauterine-device use
LNG-IUS 12: a 19.5 levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system for prevention of pregnancy for up to five years
Anemia develops when your blood lacks enough healthy red blood cells. Anemia of inflammation (AI, also called anemia of chronic disease) is a common, typically normocytic, normochromic anemia that is caused by an underlying inflammatory disease. Here is the latest research on anemia.