The levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system: an updated review of the contraceptive and noncontraceptive uses

Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
Camaryn ChrismanVanessa K Dalton


The levonorgestrel containing intrauterine system is an effective and safe form of long-term yet reversible birth control. Intrauterine contraception use in the United States fell dramatically after early studies reported an association between intrauterine contraception use and later tubal infertility. Subsequent evaluation suggests that these early studies were biased. Users often experience menstrual disturbances. Informing patients of these common side effects is important to improve compliance. In addition to its contraceptive effect, the levonorgestrel intrauterine system offers potential therapeutic benefits in other clinical contexts, including menorrhagia, symptomatic fibroids, endometriosis, and endometrial suppression.


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Nov 20, 2008·Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics·Husnu GorgenAhmet Cetin
Apr 3, 2008·The Journal of Clinical Investigation·R John AitkenMichael J K Harper
Jan 1, 2008·Patient Preference and Adherence·Chandra Kailasam, David Cahill
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