Nov 18, 2009

The mean measure of divergence: its utility in model-free and model-bound analyses relative to the Mahalanobis D(2) distance for nonmetric traits

American Journal of Human Biology : the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
Joel D Irish

Abstract

The mean measure of divergence (MMD) distance statistic has been used by researchers for nearly 50 years to assess inter-sample phenetic affinity. Its widespread and often successful use is well documented, especially in the study of cranial and dental nonmetric traits. However, the statistic has accumulated some undesired mathematical baggage through the years from various workers in their attempts to improve or alter its performance. Others may not fully understand how to apply the MMD or interpret its output, whereas some described a number of perceived shortcomings. As a result, the statistic and its sometimes flawed application(s) have taken several well-aimed hits; a few researchers even argued that it should no longer be utilized or, at least, that its use be reevaluated. The objective of this report is to support the MMD, and in the process: (1) provide a brief history of the statistic, (2) review its attributes and applicability relative to the often-used Mahalanobis D(2) statistic for nonmetric traits, (3) compare results from MMD and D(2) model-free analyses of previously-recorded sub-Saharan African dental samples, and (4) investigate its utility for model-bound analyses. In the latter instance, the ability of the D...Continue Reading

  • References49
  • Citations18

References

Mentioned in this Paper

African Continental Ancestry Group
Sample Fixation
Data Interpretation, Statistical
Bone Structure of Cranium
Two-Parameter Models
Dentition
Biological Evolution
Rasmussen Johnsen Thomsen Syndrome
Cranial Nerve Diseases
EAF2 gene

Trending Feeds

COVID-19

Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.

Bone Marrow Neoplasms

Bone Marrow Neoplasms are cancers that occur in the bone marrow. Discover the latest research on Bone Marrow Neoplasms here.

IGA Glomerulonephritis

IgA glomerulonephritis is a chronic form of glomerulonephritis characterized by deposits of predominantly Iimmunoglobin A in the mesangial area. Discover the latest research on IgA glomerulonephritis here.

Cryogenic Electron Microscopy

Cryogenic electron microscopy (Cryo-EM) allows the determination of biological macromolecules and their assemblies at a near-atomic resolution. Here is the latest research.

STING Receptor Agonists

Stimulator of IFN genes (STING) are a group of transmembrane proteins that are involved in the induction of type I interferon that is important in the innate immune response. The stimulation of STING has been an active area of research in the treatment of cancer and infectious diseases. Here is the latest research on STING receptor agonists.

LRRK2 & Immunity During Infection

Mutations in the LRRK2 gene are a risk-factor for developing Parkinson’s disease. However, LRRK2 has been shown to function as a central regulator of vesicular trafficking, infection, immunity, and inflammation. Here is the latest research on the role of this kinase on immunity during infection.

Antiphospholipid Syndrome

Antiphospholipid syndrome or antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS or APLS), is an autoimmune, hypercoagulable state caused by the presence of antibodies directed against phospholipids.

Meningococcal Myelitis

Meningococcal myelitis is characterized by inflammation and myelin damage to the meninges and spinal cord. Discover the latest research on meningococcal myelitis here.

Alzheimer's Disease: MS4A

Variants within membrane-spanning 4-domains subfamily A (MS4A) gene cluster have recently been implicated in Alzheimer's disease by recent genome-wide association studies. Here is the latest research.