PMID: 3730343Jul 1, 1986Paper

The measurement of cardiac output by electrical impedance plethysmography in pregnancy. Are the assumptions valid?

British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
M de Swiet, D G Talbert


The assumptions of the Kubicek technique for measurement of cardiac output by detection of changes in the chest wall electrical impedance have been re-examined. The fall in cardiac output in the latter half of pregnancy which Crawford's group calculated using the Kubicek technique can be almost entirely accounted for by a fall in the term dZ/dT of the Kubicek equation, as pregnancy progress. One key assumption of the Kubicek technique is a constant ejection flow rate equal to the initial flow as the pulmonary valve opens, which is multiplied by the estimated ejection time to obtain stroke volume. Initial flow rate is represented by the term dZ/dT in the Kubicek equation. Although this assumption has been shown to give a reasonable correlation with other techniques for measurement of cardiac output in the non-pregnant state, this may not be so for longitudinal studies in pregnancy because of the changes in lung mechanics and in the circulation which occur in this state. Crawford's data emphasizes the necessity for validating the Kubicek technique very critically during pregnancy.


Jan 1, 1974·Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases·J Metcalfe, K Ueland
Jul 1, 1980·British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology·P J LewisC J Bulpitt
Jun 28, 1980·British Medical Journal·P J LewisI Downing
Oct 1, 1981·European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology·A F AtkinsJ S Crawford
Oct 1, 1955·The Journal of Clinical Investigation·R A BADERE BRAUNWALD

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May 18, 2013·Journal of Perinatology : Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association·J BurlingameT Seto
Dec 1, 1992·British Heart Journal·S Hunter, S C Robson
Sep 1, 1989·American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology·D I MasakiJ G Ouzounian
Apr 1, 1991·Annals of Medicine·K K Vähä-EskeliU Säteri

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