Feb 20, 2008

The melanocortin 1 receptor and the UV response of human melanocytes--a shift in paradigm

Photochemistry and Photobiology
Zalfa A Abdel-MalekRenny Starner

Abstract

Cutaneous pigmentation is the major photoprotective mechanism against the carcinogenic and aging effects of UV. Epidermal melanocytes synthesize the pigment melanin, in the form of eumelanin or pheomelanin. Synthesis of the photoprotective eumelanin by human melanocytes is regulated mainly by the melanocortins alpha-melanocortin (alpha-MSH) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which bind the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) and activate the cAMP pathway that is required for UV-induced tanning. Melanocortins stimulate proliferation and melanogenesis and inhibit UV-induced apoptosis of human melanocytes. Importantly, melanocortins reduce the generation of hydrogen peroxide and enhance repair of DNA photoproducts, independently of pigmentation. MC1R is a major contributor to the diversity of human pigmentation and a melanoma susceptibility gene. Certain allelic variants of this gene, namely R151C, R160W and D294H, are strongly associated with red hair phenotype and increased melanoma susceptibility. Natural expression of two of these variants sensitizes melanocytes to the cytotoxic effect of UV, and increases the burden of DNA damage and oxidative stress. We are designing potent melanocortin analogs that mimic the effects of alph...Continue Reading

  • References62
  • Citations48

References

Mentioned in this Paper

Malignant Neoplasm of Skin
Biochemical Pathway
Melanocyte
Hydrogen Peroxide
Cancer-Predisposing Gene
MC1R Protein
Analog
Phaeomelanins
Oxidative Stress
Oxidative Stress Analysis

Related Feeds

Apoptosis

Apoptosis is a specific process that leads to programmed cell death through the activation of an evolutionary conserved intracellular pathway leading to pathognomic cellular changes distinct from cellular necrosis