Eukaryotic cells organize their intracellular components into organelles that can be membrane-bound or membraneless. A large number of membraneless organelles, including nucleoli, Cajal bodies, P-bodies, and stress granules, exist as liquid droplets within the cell and arise from the condensation of cellular material in a process termed liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS). Beyond a mere organizational tool, concentrating cellular components into membraneless organelles tunes biochemical reactions and improves cellular fitness during stress. In this review, we provide an overview of the molecular underpinnings of the formation and regulation of these membraneless organelles. This molecular understanding explains emergent properties of these membraneless organelles and shines new light on neurodegenerative diseases, which may originate from disturbances in LLPS and membraneless organelles.
FG-rich repeats of nuclear pore proteins form a three-dimensional meshwork with hydrogel-like properties
Protein phase behavior in aqueous solutions: crystallization, liquid-liquid phase separation, gels, and aggregates
TDP-43 is intrinsically aggregation-prone, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-linked mutations accelerate aggregation and increase toxicity
Molecular determinants and genetic modifiers of aggregation and toxicity for the ALS disease protein FUS/TLS
The mammalian disaggregase machinery: Hsp110 synergizes with Hsp70 and Hsp40 to catalyze protein disaggregation and reactivation in a cell-free system
A size-exclusion permeability barrier and nucleoporins characterize a ciliary pore complex that regulates transport into cilia
Cell-free formation of RNA granules: low complexity sequence domains form dynamic fibers within hydrogels
Cell-free formation of RNA granules: bound RNAs identify features and components of cellular assemblies
Small heat shock proteins potentiate amyloid dissolution by protein disaggregases from yeast and humans
The dual functions of the extreme N-terminus of TDP-43 in regulating its biological activity and inclusion formation
Phosphorylation-regulated binding of RNA polymerase II to fibrous polymers of low-complexity domains
Free mRNA in excess upon polysome dissociation is a scaffold for protein multimerization to form stress granules
Phase separation of RNA-binding proteins in physiology and disease: An introduction to the JBC Reviews thematic series
A unified mechanism for LLPS of ALS/FTLD-causing FUS as well as its modulation by ATP and oligonucleic acids
Inherited and Sporadic Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Fronto-Temporal Lobar Degenerations arising from Pathological Condensates of Phase Separating Proteins
Cell-Inspired All-Aqueous Microfluidics: From Intracellular Liquid-Liquid Phase Separation toward Advanced Biomaterials
Human Antiviral Protein MxA Forms Novel Metastable Membraneless Cytoplasmic Condensates Exhibiting Rapid Reversible Tonicity-Driven Phase Transitions
G-quadruplexes offer a conserved structural motif for NONO recruitment to NEAT1 architectural lncRNA
Novel therapeutic targets for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: ribonucleoproteins and cellular autonomy.
USP42 enhances homologous recombination repair by promoting R-loop resolution with a DNA-RNA helicase DHX9
Identifying sequence perturbations to an intrinsically disordered protein that determine its phase-separation behavior
Effects of Fish Oil Combined with Selenium and Zinc on Learning and Memory Impairment in Aging Mice and Amyloid Precursor Protein Processing.
The Ebola Virus Nucleoprotein Recruits the Nuclear RNA Export Factor NXF1 into Inclusion Bodies to Facilitate Viral Protein Expression.
The Impact of ALS-Associated Genes hnRNPA1, MATR3, VCP and UBQLN2 on the Severity of TDP-43 Aggregation.
Fused in Sarcoma (FUS) in DNA Repair: Tango with Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase 1 and Compartmentalisation of Damaged DNA
Supramolecular Fuzziness of Intracellular Liquid Droplets: Liquid-Liquid Phase Transitions, Membrane-Less Organelles, and Intrinsic Disorder
Dynamic Spatial Formation and Distribution of Intrinsically Disordered Protein Droplets in Macromolecularly Crowded Protocells.
The C-terminal low-complexity domain involved in liquid-liquid phase separation is required for BRD4 function in vivo
The Nucleolus: A Multiphase Condensate Balancing Ribosome Synthesis and Translational Capacity in Health, Aging and Ribosomopathies
The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (ASBMB) includes the Journal of Biological Chemistry, Molecular & Cellular Proteomics, and the Journal of Lipid Research. Discover the latest research from ASBMB here.
Cajal Bodies & Gems
Cajal bodies or coiled bodies are dense foci of coilin protein. Gemini of Cajal bodies, or gems, are microscopically similar to Cajal bodies. It is believed that Cajal bodies play important roles in RNA processing while gems assist the Cajal bodies. Find the latest research on Cajal bodies and gems here.