The Montreal definition and classification of gastroesophageal reflux disease: a global evidence-based consensus

The American Journal of Gastroenterology
Nimish VakilGlobal Consensus Group


A globally acceptable definition and classification of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is desirable for research and clinical practice. The aim of this initiative was to develop a consensus definition and classification that would be useful for patients, physicians, and regulatory agencies. A modified Delphi process was employed to reach consensus using repeated iterative voting. A series of statements was developed by a working group of five experts after a systematic review of the literature in three databases (Embase, Cochrane trials register, Medline). Over a period of 2 yr, the statements were developed, modified, and approved through four rounds of voting. The voting group consisted of 44 experts from 18 countries. The final vote was conducted on a 6-point scale and consensus was defined a priori as agreement by two-thirds of the participants. The level of agreement strengthened throughout the process with two-thirds of the participants agreeing with 86%, 88%, 94%, and 100% of statements at each vote, respectively. At the final vote, 94% of the final 51 statements were approved by 90% of the Consensus Group, and 90% of statements were accepted with strong agreement or minor reservation. GERD was defined as a condit...Continue Reading


Aug 1, 1992·Gut·N E SchindlbeckS A Müller-Lissner
Dec 1, 1991·American Journal of Surgery·K M LinT R DeMeester
Jan 27, 1990·Lancet·A G KlauserS A Müller-Lissner
Nov 1, 1989·Gut·B Joelsson, F Johnsson
Jun 23, 1989·JAMA : the Journal of the American Medical Association·C S ClarkD O Castell
Nov 26, 1988·BMJ : British Medical Journal·R A NagelG D Kerr
Aug 1, 1987·Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology·F JohnssonL Greiff
Feb 1, 1981·Thorax·R J GoodallJ G Temple
Jun 1, 1995·Annals of Internal Medicine·P L SchroederJ E Richter
Apr 1, 1995·Clinical EEG (electroencephalography)·M Valencia-FloresC Guilleminault
Jan 1, 1994·American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine·A J IngA B Breslin
Apr 1, 1994·The American Journal of Medicine·P L KamelP J Kahrilas
Jan 1, 1994·Digestive Diseases and Sciences·E E SofferT E Adrian
Feb 1, 1993·Digestive Diseases and Sciences·E E SofferT E Adrian
Feb 1, 1993·Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology·P BytzerJ M Hansen
Jan 1, 1995·Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology. Supplement·A Berstad, J G Hatlebakk
Feb 1, 1996·Gastroenterology·S J Spechler, R K Goyal
Oct 1, 1996·Australian and New Zealand Journal of Medicine·H TeichtahlP Robinson
Jun 1, 1997·The Clinical Journal of Pain·G BrattbergM Thorslund
Apr 29, 1998·The American Journal of Medicine·D A RevickiS Sorensen
May 1, 1998·American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine·S K FieldL M Price
Nov 25, 1998·Archives of Internal Medicine·M RobinsonR H Murdock
Nov 26, 1998·Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology·N I McDougallA H Love
Jan 20, 1999·Respiratory Medicine·P WeinerZ Fireman
Mar 18, 1999·The New England Journal of Medicine·J LagergrenO Nyrén

❮ Previous
Next ❯


Oct 12, 2007·Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS·J M ShinG Sachs
Jan 13, 2011·Digestive Diseases and Sciences·Justyna Wasielica-BergerAndrzej Dabrowski
Aug 19, 2008·Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery : Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract·S E AttwoodT Lind
Jan 16, 2008·Journal of General Internal Medicine·Franziska StruchThomas Kocher
May 17, 2013·Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology·Matteo FassanMassimo Rugge Md Facg
Jan 24, 2008·Nature Clinical Practice. Gastroenterology & Hepatology·Chin Hur, Patrick Yachimski
Jan 23, 2010·Nature Reviews. Cancer·Brian J ReidThomas L Vaughan
Dec 4, 2013·Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology·Margot SelleslaghNathalie Rommel
Jan 19, 2010·Gastroenterology·Stuart Jon SpechlerKenneth K Wang
Nov 3, 2012·International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Pathology·Ekaterina KraussJonas Mudter
Oct 17, 2008·The New England Journal of Medicine·Peter J Kahrilas
Jun 23, 2010·Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques. Part a·Pawanindra LalV K Ramteke
Nov 20, 2008·Family Practice·A Pali S Hungin, Irvin Modlin
Dec 16, 2010·Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology·Chi-Yang ChangUNKNOWN Asian Barrett's Consortium
Jun 26, 2007·International Journal of Clinical Practice·R JonesP Ducrotté
Jan 27, 2009·International Journal of Clinical Practice·A KingC Orn
May 19, 2007·BMJ : British Medical Journal·Robin Fox, John Fletcher
Aug 15, 2009·BMJ : British Medical Journal·Roger JonesMartin C Gulliford
Sep 14, 2010·BMJ : British Medical Journal·Janusz JankowskiBrendan Delaney
Sep 12, 2008·Annual Review of Medicine·Robert S Bresalier
Apr 21, 2012·American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology·Miwa NahataHiroshi Takeda
Jan 14, 2010·Gastroenterology Research and Practice·Theodore LiakakosEvangelos P Misiakos
Aug 10, 2011·Gastroenterology Research and Practice·Christian LottrupAsbjørn Mohr Drewes
Jan 14, 2012·International Journal of Otolaryngology·Karna Dev BardhanPeter W Dettmar
May 7, 2009·Clinical Cancer Research : an Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research·Thomas G PaulsonBrian J Reid
Sep 11, 2007·Digestive Diseases·Andreas Leodolter, Roberto Penagini
May 9, 2008·Digestive Diseases·Nimish VakilMichio Hongo
May 9, 2008·Digestive Diseases·Helmut NeumannPeter Malfertheiner
May 9, 2008·Digestive Diseases·E Bolling-SternevaldL Agréus
Jun 24, 2009·Digestion·I M ModlinUNKNOWN Vevey NERD Consensus Group
Nov 1, 2008·Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology·Yoshikazu Kinoshita, Shunji Ishihara
Sep 14, 2012·Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology·Shanmugarajah Rajendra, Prateek Sharma
Jul 1, 2011·Therapeutic Advances in Chronic Disease·Ian D Molyneux, Alyn H Morice
Dec 27, 2011·BMC Medical Research Methodology·Dmitry KhodyakovSiddhartha Dalal

❮ Previous
Next ❯

Related Concepts

Related Feeds

Barrett Esophagus

Barrett’s esophagus if a serious complication of gastroesophageal reflux disease during which the normal esophageal lining changes to tissue that resembles intestinal lining. Here is the latest research.

© 2022 Meta ULC. All rights reserved