Through the formation of persister cells, bacteria exhibit tolerance to multidrug and other environmental stresses without undergoing genetic changes. The toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are involved in the formation of persister cells because they are able to induce cell dormancy. Among the TA systems, the MqsRA system has been observed to be highly induced in persister cells of Xylella fastidiosa (causal agent of citrus variegated chlorosis-CVC) activated by copper stress, and has been described in Escherichia coli as related to the formation of persister cells and biofilms. Thus, we evaluated the role of this TA system in X. fastidiosa by overexpressing the MqsR toxin, and verified that the toxin positively regulated biofilm formation and negatively cell movement, resulting in reduced pathogenicity in citrus plants. The overexpression of MqsR also increased the formation of persister cells under copper stress. Analysis of the gene and protein expression showed that this system likely has an autoregulation mechanism to express the toxin and antitoxin in the most beneficial ratio for the cell to oppose stress. Our results suggest that this TA system plays a key role in the adaptation and survival of X. fastidiosa and reveal new i...Continue Reading
Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris gum mutants: effects on xanthan biosynthesis and plant virulence
Analysis of relative gene expression data using real-time quantitative PCR and the 2(-Delta Delta C(T)) Method
Analysis of gene expression in two growth states of Xylella fastidiosa and its relationship with pathogenicity
Overproduction of the Lon protease triggers inhibition of translation in Escherichia coli: involvement of the yefM-yoeB toxin-antitoxin system
Autoinducer 2 controls biofilm formation in Escherichia coli through a novel motility quorum-sensing regulator (MqsR, B3022)
Type I and type IV pili of Xylella fastidiosa affect twitching motility, biofilm formation and cell-cell aggregation
Etiology of three recent diseases of citrus in São Paulo State: sudden death, variegated chlorosis and huanglongbing
Mutations in type I and type IV pilus biosynthetic genes affect twitching motility rates in Xylella fastidiosa
Protein translation and cell death: the role of rare tRNAs in biofilm formation and in activating dormant phage killer genes
Overproduction of exopolysaccharides by an Escherichia coli K-12 rpoS mutant in response to osmotic stress
MqsR, a crucial regulator for quorum sensing and biofilm formation, is a GCU-specific mRNA interferase in Escherichia coli
Toxins Hha and CspD and small RNA regulator Hfq are involved in persister cell formation through MqsR in Escherichia coli
Three dimensional structure of the MqsR:MqsA complex: a novel TA pair comprised of a toxin homologous to RelE and an antitoxin with unique properties
Role of cyclic di-GMP in Xylella fastidiosa biofilm formation, plant virulence, and insect transmission
Functional characterization of replication and stability factors of an incompatibility group P-1 plasmid from Xylella fastidiosa
Structure of the Escherichia coli antitoxin MqsA (YgiT/b3021) bound to its gene promoter reveals extensive domain rearrangements and the specificity of transcriptional regulation.
Toxin-antitoxin systems influence biofilm and persister cell formation and the general stress response
Global expression profile of biofilm resistance to antimicrobial compounds in the plant-pathogenic bacterium Xylella fastidiosa reveals evidence of persister cells
The Escherichia coli toxin MqsR destabilizes the transcriptional repression complex formed between the antitoxin MqsA and the mqsRA operon promoter.
Response of Xylella fastidiosa to zinc: decreased culturability, increased exopolysaccharide production, and formation of resilient biofilms under flow conditions
Spatiotemporal distribution of different extracellular polymeric substances and filamentation mediate Xylella fastidiosa adhesion and biofilm formation
Plasmid Vectors for Xylella fastidiosa Utilizing a Toxin-Antitoxin System for Stability in the Absence of Antibiotic Selection
The DinJ/RelE Toxin-Antitoxin System Suppresses Bacterial Proliferation and Virulence of Xylella fastidiosa in Grapevine
New mechanistic insights into the motile-to-sessile switch in various bacteria with particular emphasis on Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa: a review
Genome-Wide Analysis Provides Evidence on the Genetic Relatedness of the Emergent Xylella fastidiosa Genotype in Italy to Isolates from Central America
The Influence of the Toxin/Antitoxin mazEF on Growth and Survival of Listeria monocytogenes under Stress
Chromosomally Encoded hok-sok Toxin-Antitoxin System in the Fire Blight Pathogen Erwinia amylovora: Identification and Functional Characterization
The ecnA Antitoxin Is Important Not Only for Human Pathogens: Evidence of Its Role in the Plant Pathogen Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri
Ectopic Expression of Xylella fastidiosa rpfF Conferring Production of Diffusible Signal Factor in Transgenic Tobacco and Citrus Alters Pathogen Behavior and Reduces Disease Severity
Liberibacter crescens biofilm formation in vitro: establishment of a model system for pathogenic 'Candidatus Liberibacter spp.'
Toxin/Antitoxin System Paradigms: Toxins Bound to Antitoxins Are Not Likely Activated by Preferential Antitoxin Degradation
Antitoxin autoregulation of M. tuberculosis toxin-antitoxin expression through negative cooperativity arising from multiple inverted repeat sequences
Screening and identification of BP100 peptide conjugates active against Xylella fastidiosa using a viability-qPCR method
MqsR/MqsA Toxin/Antitoxin System Regulates Persistence and Biofilm Formation in Pseudomonas putida KT2440
The Antitoxin Protein of a Toxin-Antitoxin System from Xylella fastidiosa Is Secreted via Outer Membrane Vesicles
AbiEi Binds Cooperatively to the Type IV abiE Toxin-Antitoxin Operator Via a Positively-Charged Surface and Causes DNA Bending and Negative Autoregulation
Biofilms are adherent bacterial communities embedded in a polymer matrix and can cause persistent human infections that are highly resistant to antibiotics. Discover the latest research on Biofilms here.
Actin, Myosin & Cell Movement
Contractile forces generated by the actin-myosin cytoskeleton are critical for morphogenesis, but the cellular and molecular mechanisms of contraction have been elusive for many cell shape changes and movements. Here is the latest research on the roles of actin and myosin in cell movement.
Biofilm & Infectious Disease
Biofilm formation is a key virulence factor for a wide range of microorganisms that cause chronic infections.Here is the latest research on biofilm and infectious diseases.