The mummified brain of a pleistocene woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) compared with the brain of the extant African elephant (Loxodonta africana)

The Journal of Comparative Neurology
Anastasia S KharlamovaPaul R Manger


This study presents the results of an examination of the mummified brain of a pleistocene woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) recovered from the Yakutian permafrost in Siberia, Russia. This unique specimen (from 39,440-38,850 years BP) provides the rare opportunity to compare the brain morphology of this extinct species with a related extant species, the African elephant (Loxodonta africana). An anatomical description of the preserved brain of the woolly mammoth is provided, along with a series of quantitative analyses of various brain structures. These descriptions are based on visual inspection of the actual specimen as well as qualitative and quantitative comparison of computed tomography imaging data obtained for the woolly mammoth in comparison with magnetic resonance imaging data from three African elephant brains. In general, the brain of the woolly mammoth specimen examined, estimated to weigh between 4,230 and 4,340 g, showed the typical shape, size, and gross structures observed in extant elephants. Quantitative comparative analyses of various features of the brain, such as the amygdala, corpus callosum, cerebellum, and gyrnecephalic index, all indicate that the brain of the woolly mammoth specimen examined has man...Continue Reading


Oct 8, 1976·Science·M R Zimmerman, R H Tedford
Jan 1, 1992·International Journal of Legal Medicine·S RadanovE Kirova
Jan 1, 1989·Brain, Behavior and Evolution·K ZillesH STEPHAN
Jan 1, 1981·Folia primatologica; international journal of primatology·H STEPHANG Baron
Apr 1, 1995·Neurosurgery·P C Gerszten, A J Martínez
Jul 18, 1997·Journal of Neuroscience Methods·R Quester, R Schröder
Nov 3, 2001·Science·Adrian M Lister, Andrei Sher
Nov 25, 2003·AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology·Carlos H PreviglianoJosefina Gonzalez Diez
Nov 10, 2004·Journal of Digital Imaging·Antoine RossetOsman Ratib
Sep 8, 2005·Brain Research Bulletin·Paul R Manger
Oct 11, 2005·The Anatomical Record. Part A, Discoveries in Molecular, Cellular, and Evolutionary Biology·Atiya Y HakeemJohn M Allman
Apr 1, 2006·Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society·Paul R Manger
May 16, 2006·Journal of Forensic Sciences·Nikki EklektosPaul R Manger
Jun 20, 2006·Brain Research Bulletin·Jeheskel ShoshaniGary H Marchant
Jan 27, 2009·Journal of Neuroscience Methods·Paul R MangerJason Hemingway
Oct 1, 1947·The Journal of Comparative Neurology·O LARSELL
Nov 17, 2010·Brain Structure & Function·Bob JacobsPaul R Manger
Apr 12, 2011·Brain Structure & Function·Ayanda NgwenyaPaul R Manger
Jun 30, 2011·The Anatomical Record : Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology·Busisiwe C MaskeoPaul R Manger
Jan 28, 2012·The Anatomical Record : Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology·Busisiwe C MasekoPaul R Manger
Jan 9, 2013·Brain, Behavior and Evolution·Busisiwe C MasekoPaul R Manger
Jun 7, 2013·Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS·Frank MaixnerAndreas Keller
Aug 28, 2013·Brain, Behavior and Evolution·Paul R MangerNina Patzke
Sep 12, 2013·Brain, Behavior and Evolution·Busisiwe C MasekoPaul R Manger
Oct 24, 2013·Doklady Biological Sciences : Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections·Gennady BoeskorovAlexei Tikhonov
Jun 28, 2014·Frontiers in Neuroanatomy·Suzana Herculano-HouzelPaul R Manger
Jul 26, 2014·Current Opinion in Neurobiology·Angela S Stoeger, Paul R Manger

Related Concepts

Asiatic Elephants
Magnetization Transfer Contrast Imaging
Tomography, X-Ray Computerized Axial
Mammoth <Mammuthus primigenius>
Amygdaloid Structure
Blood Pressure

Related Feeds

Amygdala: Sensory Processes

Amygdalae, nuclei clusters located in the temporal lobe of the brain, play a role in memory, emotional responses, and decision-making. Here is the latest research on sensory processes in the amygdala.

Amygdala and Midbrain Dopamine

The midbrain dopamine system is widely studied for its involvement in emotional and motivational behavior. Some of these neurons receive information from the amygdala and project throughout the cortex. When the circuit and transmission of dopamine is disrupted symptoms may present. Here is the latest research on the amygdala and midbrain dopamine.