The myriad possibility of kidney organoids

Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
Pinyuan Tian, Rachel Lennon


Human kidney development and the mechanisms of many kidney diseases are incompletely understood partly due to the lack of appropriate models. Kidney organoids derived from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) are a new and rapidly developing in-vitro system covering the window of early nephrogenesis and having the capacity for disease modelling. The application of global analytic tools such as RNA sequencing and proteomics is providing new and unexpected insights into kidney organoids with relevance for development and disease. In this review, we focus on the most significant advances in the field over the last 2 years. There have been several protocol modifications for the differentiation of hPSCs into kidney organoids, including the additional step of implantation into mice. These changes have improved the vascularization and maturity of the major cell types in the organoids, increased the production scale, and reduced the cost and labour intensity of culturing organoids. Single-cell RNA sequencing and global proteomics of kidney organoids have provided important insights into the multiple cell populations, origin of cells, and regulatory relationships between genes. There has been an increase in research using patient-derive...Continue Reading


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Epithelial Cell of Renal Tubule
Tissue Regeneration
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Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells
Laboratory Culture
Kidney Development

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