May 11, 2015

The NADPH oxidase and microbial killing by neutrophils, with a particular emphasis on the proposed antimicrobial role of myeloperoxidase within the phagocytic vacuole

BioRxiv : the Preprint Server for Biology
Adam P Levine, Anthony W Segal

Abstract

This review is devoted to a consideration of the way in which the NADPH oxidase of neutrophils, NOX2, functions to enable the efficient killing of bacteria and fungi. It includes a critical examination of the current dogma that its primary purpose is the generation of hydrogen peroxide as substrate for myeloperoxide catalysed generation of hypochlorite. Instead it is demonstrated that NADPH oxidase functions to optimise the ionic and pH conditions within the vacuole for the solubilisation and optimal activity of the proteins released into this compartment from the cytoplasmic granules, which kill and digest the microbes. The general role of other NOX systems as electrochemical generators to alter the pH and ionic composition in compartments on either side of a membrane in plants and animals will also be examined.

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Mentioned in this Paper

Hydrogen Peroxide
Body Fluid Compartments
Membrane
Neutrophils as Percentage of Blood Leukocytes (Lab Test)
NADPH Oxidase
Ion Channel
Absolute Neutrophil Count
Chytriomyces annulatus
Microbial
Vacuole

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