The Natural History of Atrioventricular Valve Regurgitation Throughout Fetal Life in Patients with Atrioventricular Canal Defects

Pediatric Cardiology
Brooke T Davey, Jack Rychik


Atrioventricular valve regurgitation (AVVR) influences morbidity and mortality in the atrioventricular canal defect (AVC). Fetal cardiac structures are subject to hemodynamic changes, as well as growth and maturation during gestation, which may alter the degree of AVVR and affect prognosis. We sought to investigate the frequency of change in degree of AVVR documented by fetal echocardiography (echo) between different periods of gestational age. Subjects with AVC seen in the Fetal Heart Program between January 2008 and September 2010 were identified. Degree of AVVR was assessed by color Doppler imaging and categorized as Grade 0 (no AVVR), Grade 1 (hemodynamically insignificant AVVR = trivial or mild), and Grade 2 (hemodynamically important AVVR = ≥moderate). Levels of AVVR between periods were compared. Forty-three fetuses were analyzed. Overall, 60% had no change, 14% had a decrease, and 26% had an increase in AVVR grade. Two fetuses progressed from Grade 0 or 1 to Grade 2, while one fetus decreased from Grade 2 to Grade 0. Trisomy 21 and heterotaxy syndrome were not risk factors for AVVR progression. Transitional and incomplete canal defects may be more susceptible to AVVR progression. Sixty percent of fetuses with AVC will n...Continue Reading


Dec 1, 1995·The Annals of Thoracic Surgery·G MichielonD Casarotto
Nov 11, 1998·Journal of the American College of Cardiology·K SuzukiS Mimori
Aug 10, 2000·Journal of the American College of Cardiology·I C HuggonG K Sharland
Jul 27, 2002·European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery : Official Journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery·A BoeningJ Cremer
Sep 14, 2004·Pediatric Cardiology·J Rychik
Oct 21, 2005·Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine·Torvid Kiserud
Jan 10, 2009·The Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology·Nee Scze KhooTerry Robertson
Jun 9, 2009·Pediatric Clinics of North America·Pei-Ni Jone, Kenneth O Schowengerdt
Dec 5, 2009·Obstetrics and Gynecology International·Gokhan YıldırımYavuz Ceylan

❮ Previous
Next ❯

Related Concepts

Trending Feeds


Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.


Blastomycosis fungal infections spread through inhaling Blastomyces dermatitidis spores. Discover the latest research on blastomycosis fungal infections here.

Nuclear Pore Complex in ALS/FTD

Alterations in nucleocytoplasmic transport, controlled by the nuclear pore complex, may be involved in the pathomechanism underlying multiple neurodegenerative diseases including Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Dementia. Here is the latest research on the nuclear pore complex in ALS and FTD.

Applications of Molecular Barcoding

The concept of molecular barcoding is that each original DNA or RNA molecule is attached to a unique sequence barcode. Sequence reads having different barcodes represent different original molecules, while sequence reads having the same barcode are results of PCR duplication from one original molecule. Discover the latest research on molecular barcoding here.

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Chronic fatigue syndrome is a disease characterized by unexplained disabling fatigue; the pathology of which is incompletely understood. Discover the latest research on chronic fatigue syndrome here.

Evolution of Pluripotency

Pluripotency refers to the ability of a cell to develop into three primary germ cell layers of the embryo. This feed focuses on the mechanisms that underlie the evolution of pluripotency. Here is the latest research.

Position Effect Variegation

Position Effect Variagation occurs when a gene is inactivated due to its positioning near heterochromatic regions within a chromosome. Discover the latest research on Position Effect Variagation here.

STING Receptor Agonists

Stimulator of IFN genes (STING) are a group of transmembrane proteins that are involved in the induction of type I interferon that is important in the innate immune response. The stimulation of STING has been an active area of research in the treatment of cancer and infectious diseases. Here is the latest research on STING receptor agonists.


Microbicides are products that can be applied to vaginal or rectal mucosal surfaces with the goal of preventing, or at least significantly reducing, the transmission of sexually transmitted infections. Here is the latest research on microbicides.