Feb 27, 2003

The ontogeny of mammalian sleep: a reappraisal of alternative hypotheses

Journal of Sleep Research
M G Frank, H C Heller

Abstract

Newborn mammals spend as much as 90% or more of their time in a sleep state characterized by frequent twitches, rapid eye movements (REMs), and irregular respiratory cycles. These motor and respiratory patterns resemble the phasic motor/respiratory components of adult REM sleep, and as a consequence, this sleep state is traditionally viewed as an immature form of REM sleep. An alternative view is that a significant portion of what has been called REM sleep in these species is a form of spontaneous activity typical of the immature nervous system. In this review, we compare and contrast these two opposing views about the ontogenetic origins of REM sleep, and review the evidence most often cited to support the idea that REM sleep is present in newborn altricial mammals. Critical review of this evidence indicates that REM sleep may not be present at birth in these species; rather, it appears that all mammals early in development exhibit spontaneous, dissociated activity that progressively becomes organized into the distinct states of REM and non-rapid eye movement sleep.

  • References65
  • Citations36

Citations

Mentioned in this Paper

Sleep, Slow-Wave
Neurons
Brain
Sleep, REM
Biogenic Monoamines
Acetylcholine Sulfate (1: 1)
Electroencephalogram

About this Paper

Trending Feeds

COVID-19

Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.

Synthetic Genetic Array Analysis

Synthetic genetic arrays allow the systematic examination of genetic interactions. Here is the latest research focusing on synthetic genetic arrays and their analyses.

Position Effect Variegation

Position Effect Variagation occurs when a gene is inactivated due to its positioning near heterochromatic regions within a chromosome. Discover the latest research on Position Effect Variagation here.

Head And Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Squamous cell carcinomas account for >90% of all tumors in the head and neck region. Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma incidence has increased dramatically recently with little improvement in patient outcomes. Here is the latest research on this aggressive malignancy.

Signaling in Adult Neurogenesis

Neural stem cells play a critical role in the production of neuronal cells in neurogenesis is of great importance. Of interest is the role signalling mechanisms in adult neurogenesis. Discover the latest research on signalling in adult neurogenesis.

Psychiatric Chronotherapy

Psychiatric Chronotherapy considers the circadian rhythm as a major factor for optimizing therapeutic efficacy of psychiatric interventions. Discover the latest research on Psychiatric Chronotherapy here.

Epigenetic Memory

Epigenetic memory refers to the heritable genetic changes that are not explained by the DNA sequence. Find the latest research on epigenetic memory here.

Bone Marrow Neoplasms

Bone Marrow Neoplasms are cancers that occur in the bone marrow. Discover the latest research on Bone Marrow Neoplasms here.