The regulation of sympathetic nerve activity in chronic heart failure (CHF) has been an area of renewed investigation. Understanding the central mechanisms that are responsible for sympatho-excitation in this disease state may help in reducing the deleterious effects of chronic sympatho-excitation. This review will summarize our understanding of abnormal reflex control of the circulation in CHF. The roles of the arterial baroreflex, the chemoreflex, the cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex and the cardiopulmonary reflex are discussed. New experimental techniques that allow genetic manipulation of substances such as nitric oxide synthase in discrete areas of the brain aid in clarifying the role of NO in the modulation of sympathetic tone in the CHF state. Lastly, clinical implications of this work are discussed.
Nitric oxide as a mediator of relaxation of the corpus cavernosum in response to nonadrenergic, noncholinergic neurotransmission
Intracardiac phenylbiguanide causes excitation of spinal neurons by activation of cardiac sympathetic afferents
NG-methyl-L-arginine, an inhibitor of L-arginine-derived nitric oxide synthesis, stimulates renal sympathetic nerve activity in vivo. A role for nitric oxide in the central regulation of sympathetic tone?
Heart rate and plasma norepinephrine responsivity to orthostatic challenge in anxiety disorders. Comparison of patients with panic disorder and social phobia and normal control subjects
Interactions between ANG II, sympathetic nervous system, and baroreceptor reflexes in regulation of blood pressure
Effect of enalapril on survival in patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fractions and congestive heart failure
Panic-induced elevation of plasma MHPG levels in phobic-anxious patients. Effects of clonidine and imipramine
ANG II receptor blockade and arterial baroreflex regulation of renal nerve activity in cardiac failure
Angiotensin II neurotransmitter actions in paraventricular nucleus are potentiated by a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor
Central nervous system noradrenergic control of sympathetic outflow in normotensive and hypertensive humans
Effects of beta-blockade on neurohumoral responses and neurochemical markers in pacing-induced heart failure
Distribution and functional significance of cardiac angiotensin converting enzyme in hypertrophied rat hearts
Blockade of AT1 receptors enhances baroreflex control of heart rate in conscious rabbits with heart failure
Hemodynamic and norepinephrine responses to pacing-induced heart failure in conscious sinoaortic-denervated dogs
Interactions between angiotensin II and the sympathetic nervous system in the the long-term control of arterial pressure
Randomised trial of losartan versus captopril in patients over 65 with heart failure (Evaluation of Losartan in the Elderly Study, ELITE)
Central TNF inhibition results in attenuated neurohumoral excitation in heart failure: a role for superoxide and nitric oxide
Left atrial remodelling contributes to the progression of asymptomatic left ventricular systolic dysfunction to chronic symptomatic heart failure
Physical exercise improves cardiac autonomic modulation in hypertensive patients independently of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor treatment
Abnormal baroreflex function is dissociated from central angiotensin II receptor expression in chronic heart failure.
Reactive oxygen species in rostral ventrolateral medulla modulate cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex in rats
Increased cardiac sympathetic nerve activity in heart failure is not due to desensitization of the arterial baroreflex
Interaction between cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex and chemoreflex is mediated by the NTS AT1 receptors in heart failure.
Altered astrocyte glutamate transporter regulation of hypothalamic neurosecretory neurons in heart failure rats.
The Walter B. Cannon Memorial Award Lecture, 2009. Physiology in perspective: The wisdom of the body. In search of autonomic balance: the good, the bad, and the ugly
Reduction in synaptic GABA release contributes to target-selective elevation of PVN neuronal activity in rats with myocardial infarction.
Chemoreceptor hypersensitivity, sympathetic excitation, and overexpression of ASIC and TASK channels before the onset of hypertension in SHR.
Angiotensin II-triggered p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase mediates sympathetic excitation in heart failure rats.
Contribution of central nervous system endothelial nitric oxide synthase to neurohumoral activation in heart failure rats
Renalase deficiency in heart failure model of rats--a potential mechanism underlying circulating norepinephrine accumulation
Role of angiotensin-(1-7) and Mas-R-nNOS pathways in amplified neuronal activity of dorsolateral periaqueductal gray after chronic heart failure
Central nervous system circuits modified in heart failure: pathophysiology and therapeutic implications
Brain mechanisms of sympathetic activation in heart failure: Roles of the renin‑angiotensin system, nitric oxide and pro‑inflammatory cytokines (Review)
Carotid body denervation improves autonomic and cardiac function and attenuates disordered breathing in congestive heart failure
Autonomic, locomotor and cardiac abnormalities in a mouse model of muscular dystrophy: targeting the renin-angiotensin system
Neurochemistry of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus: implications for cardiovascular regulation
Angiotensin AT1 receptors in paraventricular nucleus contribute to sympathetic activation and enhanced cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex in renovascular hypertensive rats
Enhanced cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex involved in sympathetic overactivity in renovascular hypertensive rats
Impact of cardiac hypertrophy on arterial and cardiopulmonary baroreflex control of renal sympathetic nerve activity in anaesthetized rats
The effects of intravenous sildenafil on hemodynamics and cardiac sympathetic activity in chronic human heart failure
Responses of neurons in paraventricular nucleus to activation of cardiac afferents and acute myocardial ischaemia in rats
The cardiovascular actions of fractalkine/CX3CL1 in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus are attenuated in rats with heart failure
Chronic infusion of angiotensin receptor antagonists in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus prevents hypertension in a rat model of sleep apnea
Differential effects of cardiac sympathetic afferent stimulation on neurons in the nucleus tractus solitarius
Reactive oxygen species in paraventricular nucleus modulates cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex in rats
Antisense Oligonucleotides: ND
This feed focuses on antisense oligonucleotide therapies such as Inotersen, Nusinursen, and Patisiran, in neurodegenerative diseases including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.