The paradigm of hematological malignant versus non-malignant manifestations, driven by primary immunodeficiencies: a complex interplay.

Familial Cancer
C KelaidiS Polychronopoulou

Abstract

Hematological malignancies (HM) developed on underlying primary immunodeficiencies (PID) are rare and of unusual features. Differentiating between malignant and non-malignant lymphoproliferation in cases of pediatric hematology and oncology and revealing their molecular predisposition demonstrate the complex interplay between PID and HM. We retrospectively studied a case series of seven pediatric patients, all with PID with manifestations raising suspicion for HM or hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) or confirmed HM of lymphoid origin. Combined immunodeficiency (CID) without detection of a known mutated gene or with ataxia-telangiectasia (AT), STAT3 gain of function (GOF), DOCK8 deficiency, and CTLA4 deficiency were diagnosed in three, one, one, one, and one patient, respectively. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia and Hodgkin lymphoma followed by second primary Burkitt lymphoma were diagnosed in one patient with CID each, while lymphomatoid granulomatosis in one patient with AT. Lymphoproliferative disease occurred in STAT3 GOF, CTLA4 deficiency and CID, one patient each, and idiopathic HES in DOCK8 deficiency (median age at presentation of PID or any hematological manifestation: four years). Four patients underwent hematopoietic cell...Continue Reading

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