The Pathogenesis and Therapeutic Approaches of Diabetic Neuropathy in the Retina.

International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Toshiyuki Oshitari

Abstract

Diabetic retinopathy is a major retinal disease and a leading cause of blindness in the world. Diabetic retinopathy is a neurovascular disease that is associated with disturbances of the interdependent relationship of cells composed of the neurovascular units, i.e., neurons, glial cells, and vascular cells. An impairment of these neurovascular units causes both neuronal and vascular abnormalities in diabetic retinopathy. More specifically, neuronal abnormalities including neuronal cell death and axon degeneration are irreversible changes that are directly related to the vision reduction in diabetic patients. Thus, establishment of neuroprotective and regenerative therapies for diabetic neuropathy in the retina is an emergent task for preventing the blindness of patients with diabetic retinopathy. This review focuses on the pathogenesis of the neuronal abnormalities in diabetic retina including glial abnormalities, neuronal cell death, and axon degeneration. The possible molecular cell death pathways and intrinsic survival and regenerative pathways are also described. In addition, therapeutic approaches for diabetic neuropathy in the retina both in vitro and in vivo are presented. This review should be helpful for providing clue...Continue Reading

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