DOI: 10.1101/479006Nov 27, 2018Paper

The pentaglycine bridges of Staphylococcus aureus peptidoglycan are essential for cell integrity

BioRxiv : the Preprint Server for Biology
Joao M MonteiroMariana G Pinho

Abstract

Bacterial cells are surrounded by cell wall, whose main component is peptidoglycan (PG), a macromolecule that withstands the internal turgor of the cell. PG composition can vary considerably between species. The Gram-positive pathogen Staphylococcus aureus possesses highly crosslinked PG due to the presence of cross bridges containing five glycines, which are synthesised by the FemXAB protein family. FemX adds the first glycine of the cross bridge, while FemA and FemB add the second and the third, and the fourth and the fifth glycines, respectively. Of these, FemX was reported to be essential. To investigate the essentiality of FemAB, we constructed a conditional S. aureus mutant of the femAB operon. Depletion of femAB was lethal, with cells appearing as pseudomulticellular forms that eventually lyse due to extensive membrane rupture. This deleterious effect was mitigated by drastically increasing the osmolarity of the medium, indicating that pentaglycine crosslinks are required for S. aureus cells to withstand internal turgor. Despite the absence of canonical membrane targeting domains, FemA has been shown to localise at the membrane. To study its mechanism of localisation, we constructed mutants in key residues present in the...Continue Reading

Related Concepts

Cell Wall
Cross-Linking Reagents
Glycine
Gram-Positive Bacteria
Operon
Peptidoglycan
Staphylococcus aureus
Macromolecule
Membrane
Mutant

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