PMID: 37417Feb 1, 1979

The pineal gland as an APUD organ: supporting evidence and implications

Medical Hypotheses
A S Leong, C D Matthews


It is only in recent years that the pineal gland has emerged from being thought of as non-functional and unimportant. The rise from obscurity has been the result of the interest of investigators of multidisplinary origins; such approaches, whilst clearly advancing understanding, also tend to leave knowledge fragmentary. In the last decade, a new neuroendocrine axis known as the APUD system has been delineated and scientifically accepted. The essence of the concept has been to link a physically widely dispersed and apparently unconnected series of glandular structures by a common embryological derivation and their secretion of closely similar functional products. The present proposal collates evidence for the inclusion of the pineal gland within the APUD system. In addition, because of the proven connections and response of the pineal gland to environmental changes, it is hypothesised that pineal products may provide the link between the environment and other members of the widely dispersed APUD system and thereby temper body homeostasis.


Nov 1, 1990·Biulleten' eksperimental'noĭ biologii i meditsiny·V M Rozum
Jan 1, 1986·Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews·P B FoleyA Foldes
Jan 30, 2008·Neurobiology of Disease·Robert Y MooreDavid J Brooks
Aug 14, 2003·Brain Research·Robert Y MooreDavid J Brooks
Jan 1, 1987·Journal of Pineal Research·P B Foley, K D Cairncross
Jan 1, 1990·The International Journal of Neuroscience·R Sandyk


Sep 22, 1975·Zeitschrift Für Krebsforschung Und Klinische Onkologie. Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology·A G Pearse
May 1, 1977·Journal of Steroid Biochemistry·D J KennawayM Schilthuis
Aug 1, 1975·The American Journal of Anatomy·A Lukaszyk, R J Reiter
May 22, 1975·Nature·N T RaikhlinV N Tolkachev
Feb 1, 1975·The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism·J ArendtP C Sizonenko
Jun 1, 1969·Endocrinology·D C Klein, S V Lines

Related Concepts

Neuroendocrine Tumors
Neurosecretory Systems
Dicom Derivation
Process of Secretion
Malignant Neoplasm of Pineal Gland
Cell Secretion
APUD Cells

Trending Feeds


Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.

Sexual Dimorphism in Neurodegeneration

There exist sex differences in neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders. For instance, multiple sclerosis is more common in women, whereas Parkinson’s disease is more common in men. Here is the latest research on sexual dimorphism in neurodegeneration

HLA Genetic Variation

HLA genetic variation has been found to confer risk for a wide variety of diseases. Identifying these associations and understanding their molecular mechanisms is ongoing and holds promise for the development of therapeutics. Find the latest research on HLA genetic variation here.

Super-resolution Microscopy

Super-resolution microscopy is the term commonly given to fluorescence microscopy techniques with resolutions that are not limited by the diffraction of light. Here are the latest discoveries pertaining to super-resolution microscopy.

Genetic Screens in iPSC-derived Brain Cells

Genetic screening is a critical tool that can be employed to define and understand gene function and interaction. This feed focuses on genetic screens conducted using induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived brain cells.

Brain Lower Grade Glioma

Low grade gliomas in the brain form from oligodendrocytes and astrocytes and are the slowest-growing glioma in adults. Discover the latest research on these brain tumors here.

CD4/CD8 Signaling

Cluster of differentiation 4 and 8 (CD8 and CD8) are glycoproteins founds on the surface of immune cells. Here is the latest research on their role in cell signaling pathways.

Alignment-free Sequence Analysis Tools

Alignment-free sequence analyses have been applied to problems ranging from whole-genome phylogeny to the classification of protein families, identification of horizontally transferred genes, and detection of recombined sequences. Here is the latest research.

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Chronic fatigue syndrome is a disease characterized by unexplained disabling fatigue; the pathology of which is incompletely understood. Discover the latest research on chronic fatigue syndrome here.