Apr 22, 2005

The potential of four-dimensional (4D) ultrasonography in the assessment of fetal awareness

Journal of Perinatal Medicine
Asim KurjakJose M Carrera


The aim of the study was to observe different expressions and movements of a fetal face during investigation of fetal behavior in the second and the third trimester of normal pregnancies, as a probable manifestation of fetal awareness. Over a 6-month period a study was conducted in three centers in Zagreb, Croatia and in Barcelona and Malaga, Spain. Women with singleton pregnancies (16-33 weeks) who were referred for ultrasound check-up for determination of gestational age, suspicious fetal malformations, polyhydramnios, and/or the assessment of biophysical profile or other possible pathology, were assigned to the study. After regular two-dimensional (2D) ultrasound assessment at an antenatal clinic, pregnant women were offered the possibility of undergoing 4D ultrasound examination if the fetus and the mother were considered "normal", i.e., if ultrasound and clinical assessment were uneventful. If the newborn delivered at term had 1- and 5-min Apgar scores of 7 and 10, respectively, and if the newborn was considered "term and normal" (normal spontaneous activity, normal posture and tone, and presence of some primitive reflexes) at the first and subsequent regular check-ups, the inclusion criteria were deemed to have been met. ...Continue Reading

  • References15
  • Citations23


  • References15
  • Citations23


Mentioned in this Paper

Examination of Reflexes
Entire Oral Cavity
Entire Fetus
Entire Chin
Fetal Movement

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