The receptor binding domain of SARS-CoV-2 spike is the key target of neutralizing antibody in human polyclonal sera.

BioRxiv : the Preprint Server for Biology
T. SteffenJames D Brien

Abstract

Natural infection of SARS-CoV-2 in humans leads to the development of a strong neutralizing antibody response, however the immunodominant targets of the polyclonal neutralizing antibody response are still unknown. Here, we functionally define the role SARS-CoV-2 spike plays as a target of the human neutralizing antibody response. In this study, we identify the spike protein subunits that contain antigenic determinants and examine the neutralization capacity of polyclonal sera from a cohort of patients that tested qRT-PCR-positive for SARS-CoV-2. Using an ELISA format, we assessed binding of human sera to spike subunit 1 (S1), spike subunit 2 (S2) and the receptor binding domain (RBD) of spike. To functionally identify the key target of neutralizing antibody, we depleted sera of subunit-specific antibodies to determine the contribution of these individual subunits to the antigen-specific neutralizing antibody response. We show that epitopes within RBD are the target of a majority of the neutralizing antibodies in the human polyclonal antibody response. These data provide critical information for vaccine development and development of sensitive and specific serological testing.

Citations

Apr 3, 2021·Nature Reviews. Immunology·Sarah CobeyMarc Lipsitch
Oct 18, 2020·Nature Reviews. Microbiology·Shan SuShibo Jiang

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