Jan 30, 1991

The relationship between Apgar score, umbilical artery pH and operative delivery for fetal distress in 2778 infants born at term

European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
A L HoffmannB Weile


A total of 2778 infants born at term were studied to determine the relationship between Apgar scores after 1 min, umbilical artery pH values, mode of delivery, a diagnosis of fetal distress leading to operative delivery, and sex. Eighty-three percent of the population had normal Apgar scores (greater than or equal to 8) and normal pH values (greater than 7.15) in which 10% were operatively delivered for fetal distress (ODFD). Sixty-one percent of the children with low Apgar scores (less than or equal to 7) had normal pH values, and 74% of the infants with acidosis (pH less than or equal to 7.15) had normal Apgar score. Twenty-four percent of the infants with a low Apgar score and/or acidosis were ODFD (sensitivity). Ninety percent of the infants who had Apgar scores and pH values were not ODFD (specificity). The predictive value (a low Apgar score and/or acidosis) of ODFD was 33%, and the negative predictive value (normal Apgar score and a normal pH) of ODFD was 85%. A significantly higher incidence of ODFD and acidosis was found in boys.

  • References12
  • Citations6


  • References12
  • Citations6


Mentioned in this Paper

Fetal Distress
Entire Umbilical Artery
Apgar Score
Umbilical Cord Blood
Metabolic Acidosis
Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
Chi-Square Distribution
Obstetric Delivery

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