Scattered throughout the pancreas, the endocrine islets rely on neurovascular support for signal relay to regulate hormone secretion and for maintaining tissue homeostasis. The islet accessory cells (or components) of neurovascular tissues include the endothelial cells, pericytes, smooth muscle cells, neurons (nerve fibers), and glia. Research results derived from experimental diabetes and islet transplantation indicate that the accessory cells are reactive in islet injury and can affect islet function and homeostasis in situ or in an ectopic environment. Recent advances in cell labeling and tissue imaging have enabled investigation of islet accessory cells to gain insights into their network structures, functions, and remodeling in disease. It has become clear that in diabetes, the islet neurovascular tissues are not just bystanders damaged in neuropathy and vascular complications; rather, they participate in islet remodeling in response to changes in the microenvironment. Because of the fundamental differences between humans and animal models in neuroinsular cytoarchitecture and cell proliferation, examination of islet accessory cells in clinical specimens and donor pancreases warrants further attention.
Ultrastructural evidence for the presence of a glial sheath investing the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas of mammals
The endocrine pancreas of spontaneously diabetic db/db mice: microangiopathy as revealed by transmission electron microscopy
Islet injury induces neurotrophin expression in pancreatic cells and reactive gliosis of peri-islet Schwann cells
Regulation of endothelial constitutive nitric oxide synthase gene expression in endothelial cells and in vivo : a specific vascular action of insulin
The cephalic insulin response to meal ingestion in humans is dependent on both cholinergic and noncholinergic mechanisms and is important for postprandial glycemia
Adenovirus-mediated hepatocyte growth factor expression in mouse islets improves pancreatic islet transplant performance and reduces beta cell death.
Endothelial cell interactions initiate dorsal pancreas development by selectively inducing the transcription factor Ptf1a
A multitargeted, metronomic, and maximum-tolerated dose "chemo-switch" regimen is antiangiogenic, producing objective responses and survival benefit in a mouse model of cancer
Donor islet endothelial cells participate in formation of functional vessels within pancreatic islet grafts
Antiangiogenic and immunomodulatory effects of rapamycin on islet endothelium: relevance for islet transplantation
Pancreatic islet production of vascular endothelial growth factor--a is essential for islet vascularization, revascularization, and function
Impaired insulin secretion in vivo but enhanced insulin secretion from isolated islets in pancreatic beta cell-specific vascular endothelial growth factor-A knock-out mice
Angiopoietin-1 production in islets improves islet engraftment and protects islets from cytokine-induced apoptosis
Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor increases beta-cell mass and improves glucose tolerance.
Ultrastructure of islet microcirculation, pericytes and the islet exocrine interface in the HIP rat model of diabetes.
Unique basement membrane structure of human pancreatic islets: implications for beta-cell growth and differentiation
The role of blood vessels, endothelial cells, and vascular pericytes in insulin secretion and peripheral insulin action.
In vivo non-viral gene delivery of human vascular endothelial growth factor improves revascularisation and restoration of euglycaemia after human islet transplantation into mouse liver.
Unexpected acceleration of type 1 diabetes by transgenic expression of B7-H1 in NOD mouse peri-islet glia.
Insulin protects against type 1 diabetes mellitus-induced ultrastructural abnormalities of pancreatic islet microcirculation.
Designing a bioelectronic treatment for Type 1 diabetes: targeted parasympathetic modulation of insulin secretion.
Glucose-dependent activation, activity, and deactivation of beta cell networks in acute mouse pancreas tissue slices.
Recapitulating pancreatic cell-cell interactions through bioengineering approaches: the momentous role of non-epithelial cells for diabetes cell therapy.
Blood Brain Barrier
The blood brain barrier is a border that separates blood from cerebrospinal fluid. Discover the latest search on this highly selective semipermeable membrane here.