Sep 23, 2014

The role of epigenetics in age-related macular degeneration

Eye
M Gemenetzi, A J Lotery

Abstract

It is becoming increasingly evident that epigenetic mechanisms influence gene expression and can explain how interactions between genetics and the environment result in particular phenotypes during development. The extent to which this epigenetic effect contributes to phenotype heritability in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is currently ill defined. However, emerging evidence suggests that epigenetic changes are relevant to AMD and as such provide an exciting new avenue of research for AMD. This review addresses information on the impact of posttranslational modification of the genome on the pathogenesis of AMD, such as DNA methylation changes affecting antioxidant gene expression, hypoxia-regulated alterations in chromatin structure, and histone acetylation status in relation to angiogenesis and inflammation. It also contains information on the role of non-coding RNA-mediated gene regulation in AMD at a posttranscriptional (before translation) level. Our aim was to review the epigenetic mechanisms that cause heritable changes in gene activity without changing the DNA sequence. We also describe some long-term alterations in the transcriptional potential of a cell, which are not necessarily heritable but remains to be de...Continue Reading

Mentioned in this Paper

Pathogenic Aspects
DNA Methylation [PE]
Pathogenesis
Angiogenic Process
RNA, Untranslated
Post-Translational Protein Processing
Central Vision
Transcription, Genetic
Vision
Antioxidants

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