The study of the three-dimensional organization of chromatin has recently gained much focus in the context of novel techniques for detecting genome-wide contacts using next-generation sequencing. These chromosome conformation capture-based methods give a deep topological insight into the architecture of the genome inside the nucleus. Several recent studies observe a compartmentalization of chromatin interactions into spatially confined domains. This structural feature of interphase chromosomes is not only supported by conventional studies assessing the interaction data of millions of cells, but also by analysis on the level of a single cell. We first present and examine the different models that have been proposed to elucidate these topological domains in eukaryotes. Then we show that a model which relies on the dynamic formation of loops within domains can account for the experimentally observed contact maps. Interestingly, the topological domain structure is not only found in mammalian genomes, but also in bacterial chromosomes.
Simulated binding of transcription factors to active and inactive regions folds human chromosomes into loops, rosettes and topological domains
The bipartite TAD organization of the X-inactivation center ensures opposing developmental regulation of Tsix and Xist
Systems-level chromosomal parameters represent a suprachromosomal basis for the non-random chromosomal arrangement in human interphase nuclei
Site-directed mutational analysis of DnaA protein, the initiator of chromosomal DNA replication in E. coli
Entropy-driven spatial organization of highly confined polymers: lessons for the bacterial chromosome
Chromosomal dynamics at the Shh locus: limb bud-specific differential regulation of competence and active transcription
Chromosomal macrodomains and associated proteins: implications for DNA organization and replication in gram negative bacteria
A model for Escherichia coli chromosome packaging supports transcription factor-induced DNA domain formation
Characterization of constitutive CTCF/cohesin loci: a possible role in establishing topological domains in mammalian genomes
Cohesin-based chromatin interactions enable regulated gene expression within preexisting architectural compartments
CREs: Gene & Cell Therapy
Gene and cell therapy advances have shown promising outcomes for several diseases. The role of cis-regulatory elements (CREs) is crucial in the design of gene therapy vectors. Here is the latest research on CREs in gene and cell therapy.