The Role of NK Cells in Pig-to-Human Xenotransplantation

Journal of Immunology Research
Gisella Puga YungJörg D Seebach

Abstract

Recruitment of human NK cells to porcine tissues has been demonstrated in pig organs perfused ex vivo with human blood in the early 1990s. Subsequently, the molecular mechanisms leading to adhesion and cytotoxicity in human NK cell-porcine endothelial cell (pEC) interactions have been elucidated in vitro to identify targets for therapeutic interventions. Specific molecular strategies to overcome human anti-pig NK cell responses include (1) blocking of the molecular events leading to recruitment (chemotaxis, adhesion, and transmigration), (2) expression of human MHC class I molecules on pECs that inhibit NK cells, and (3) elimination or blocking of pig ligands for activating human NK receptors. The potential of cell-based strategies including tolerogenic dendritic cells (DC) and regulatory T cells (Treg) and the latest progress using transgenic pigs genetically modified to reduce xenogeneic NK cell responses are discussed. Finally, we present the status of phenotypic and functional characterization of nonhuman primate (NHP) NK cells, essential for studying their role in xenograft rejection using preclinical pig-to-NHP models, and summarize key advances and important perspectives for future research.

References

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Citations

Dec 7, 2017·Transplant International : Official Journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation·Raphael P H MeierLeo H Buhler
Nov 7, 2019·Journal of Cellular Physiology·Alireza MardomiSaeid Abediankenari
Jun 21, 2019·Xenotransplantation·Kannan P SamyAllan D Kirk
Nov 17, 2019·American Journal of Transplantation : Official Journal of the American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons·Rabea HeinReinhard Schwinzer
Jun 24, 2020·Heart Failure Reviews·Songren ShuJiangping Song
Mar 27, 2020·Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine·Marco Carvalho OliveiraConstança Figueiredo
Feb 11, 2020·Frontiers in Immunology·Tianyu LuChuan Qin
Jan 8, 2021·International Journal of Immunogenetics·Marco Carvalho-OliveiraConstanca Figueiredo
May 21, 2020·Transplantation·Joseph M LadowskiDavid K C Cooper

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Methods Mentioned

BETA
transgenic
xenografts
xenograft
genetic modifications
transfection

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