Jul 3, 2016

The role of oxidative stress in organophosphate and nerve agent toxicity

Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Jennifer N Pearson, Manisha Patel


Organophosphate (OP) nerve agents exert their toxicity through inhibition of acetylcholinesterase. The excessive stimulation of cholinergic receptors rapidly causes neuronal damage, seizures, death, and long-term neurological impairment in those that survive. Owing to the lethality of organophosphorus agents and the growing risk they pose, medical interventions that prevent OP toxicity and the delayed injury response are much needed. Studies have shown that oxidative stress occurs in models of subacute, acute, and chronic exposure to OP agents. Key findings of these studies include alterations in mitochondrial function and increased free radical-mediated injury, such as lipid peroxidation. This review focuses on the role of reactive oxygen species in OP neurotoxicity and its dependence on seizure activity. Understanding the sources, mechanisms, and pathological consequences of OP-induced oxidative stress can lead to the development of rational therapies for treating toxic exposures.

Mentioned in this Paper

Organophosphorus Poisoning
Mitochondrial Inheritance
Cessation of Life
Free Radicals
Cholinesterase Inhibitors, Reversible
Oxidative Stress
Oxidative Stress Analysis

Trending Feeds


Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.

Position Effect Variegation

Position Effect Variagation occurs when a gene is inactivated due to its positioning near heterochromatic regions within a chromosome. Discover the latest research on Position Effect Variagation here.

Head And Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Squamous cell carcinomas account for >90% of all tumors in the head and neck region. Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma incidence has increased dramatically recently with little improvement in patient outcomes. Here is the latest research on this aggressive malignancy.

Signaling in Adult Neurogenesis

Neural stem cells play a critical role in the production of neuronal cells in neurogenesis is of great importance. Of interest is the role signalling mechanisms in adult neurogenesis. Discover the latest research on signalling in adult neurogenesis.

Psychiatric Chronotherapy

Psychiatric Chronotherapy considers the circadian rhythm as a major factor for optimizing therapeutic efficacy of psychiatric interventions. Discover the latest research on Psychiatric Chronotherapy here.

Bone Marrow Neoplasms

Bone Marrow Neoplasms are cancers that occur in the bone marrow. Discover the latest research on Bone Marrow Neoplasms here.

IGA Glomerulonephritis

IgA glomerulonephritis is a chronic form of glomerulonephritis characterized by deposits of predominantly Iimmunoglobin A in the mesangial area. Discover the latest research on IgA glomerulonephritis here.

Cryogenic Electron Microscopy

Cryogenic electron microscopy (Cryo-EM) allows the determination of biological macromolecules and their assemblies at a near-atomic resolution. Here is the latest research.

STING Receptor Agonists

Stimulator of IFN genes (STING) are a group of transmembrane proteins that are involved in the induction of type I interferon that is important in the innate immune response. The stimulation of STING has been an active area of research in the treatment of cancer and infectious diseases. Here is the latest research on STING receptor agonists.