Jun 20, 2019

The Role of Streptococcal and Staphylococcal Exotoxins and Proteases in Human Necrotizing Soft Tissue Infections

Toxins
Patience ShumbaNikolai Siemens

Abstract

Necrotizing soft tissue infections (NSTIs) are critical clinical conditions characterized by extensive necrosis of any layer of the soft tissue and systemic toxicity. Group A streptococci (GAS) and Staphylococcus aureus are two major pathogens associated with monomicrobial NSTIs. In the tissue environment, both Gram-positive bacteria secrete a variety of molecules, including pore-forming exotoxins, superantigens, and proteases with cytolytic and immunomodulatory functions. The present review summarizes the current knowledge about streptococcal and staphylococcal toxins in NSTIs with a special focus on their contribution to disease progression, tissue pathology, and immune evasion strategies.

  • References249
  • Citations

Citations

  • This paper may not have been cited yet.

Mentioned in this Paper

Gram-Positive Bacteria
Pathologic Cytolysis
Necrosis
Immune Evasion
IgG Fc-binding protein, Streptococcus
Peptide Hydrolases
Environment
Streptococcus
Staphylococcus aureus
Exotoxins

Trending Feeds

COVID-19

Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.

Synthetic Genetic Array Analysis

Synthetic genetic arrays allow the systematic examination of genetic interactions. Here is the latest research focusing on synthetic genetic arrays and their analyses.

Position Effect Variegation

Position Effect Variagation occurs when a gene is inactivated due to its positioning near heterochromatic regions within a chromosome. Discover the latest research on Position Effect Variagation here.

Head And Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Squamous cell carcinomas account for >90% of all tumors in the head and neck region. Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma incidence has increased dramatically recently with little improvement in patient outcomes. Here is the latest research on this aggressive malignancy.

Signaling in Adult Neurogenesis

Neural stem cells play a critical role in the production of neuronal cells in neurogenesis is of great importance. Of interest is the role signalling mechanisms in adult neurogenesis. Discover the latest research on signalling in adult neurogenesis.

Psychiatric Chronotherapy

Psychiatric Chronotherapy considers the circadian rhythm as a major factor for optimizing therapeutic efficacy of psychiatric interventions. Discover the latest research on Psychiatric Chronotherapy here.

Epigenetic Memory

Epigenetic memory refers to the heritable genetic changes that are not explained by the DNA sequence. Find the latest research on epigenetic memory here.

Bone Marrow Neoplasms

Bone Marrow Neoplasms are cancers that occur in the bone marrow. Discover the latest research on Bone Marrow Neoplasms here.