Jun 20, 2019

The Role of Streptococcal and Staphylococcal Exotoxins and Proteases in Human Necrotizing Soft Tissue Infections

Patience ShumbaNikolai Siemens


Necrotizing soft tissue infections (NSTIs) are critical clinical conditions characterized by extensive necrosis of any layer of the soft tissue and systemic toxicity. Group A streptococci (GAS) and Staphylococcus aureus are two major pathogens associated with monomicrobial NSTIs. In the tissue environment, both Gram-positive bacteria secrete a variety of molecules, including pore-forming exotoxins, superantigens, and proteases with cytolytic and immunomodulatory functions. The present review summarizes the current knowledge about streptococcal and staphylococcal toxins in NSTIs with a special focus on their contribution to disease progression, tissue pathology, and immune evasion strategies.

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Mentioned in this Paper

Gram-Positive Bacteria
Pathologic Cytolysis
Immune Evasion
IgG Fc-binding protein, Streptococcus
Peptide Hydrolases
Staphylococcus aureus

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