A complex role has been described for dendritic cells (DCs) in the potentiation and control of vascular inflammation and atherosclerosis. Resident vascular DCs are found in the intima of atherosclerosis-prone vascular regions exposed to disturbed blood flow patterns. Several phenotypically and functionally distinct vascular DC subsets have been described. The functional heterogeneity of these cells and their contributions to vascular homeostasis, inflammation, and atherosclerosis are only recently beginning to emerge. Here, we review the available literature, characterizing the origin and function of known vascular DC subsets and their important role contributing to the balance of immune activation and immune tolerance governing vascular homeostasis under healthy conditions. We then discuss how homeostatic DC functions are disrupted during atherogenesis, leading to atherosclerosis. The effectiveness of DC-based "atherosclerosis vaccine" therapies in the treatment of atherosclerosis is also reviewed. We further provide suggestions for distinguishing DCs from macrophages and discuss important future directions for the field.
Generation of large numbers of dendritic cells from mouse bone marrow cultures supplemented with granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor
Induction of endothelial cell expression of granulocyte and macrophage colony-stimulating factors by modified low-density lipoproteins
Pulsatile flow and atherosclerosis in the human carotid bifurcation. Positive correlation between plaque location and low oscillating shear stress
Interleukin-12: a proinflammatory cytokine with immunoregulatory functions that bridge innate resistance and antigen-specific adaptive immunity
Immunization of low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-deficient rabbits with homologous malondialdehyde-modified LDL reduces atherogenesis
Potent cholesterol-lowering effect by human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in rabbits. Possible implications of enhancement of macrophage functions and an increase in mRNA for VLDL receptor
Efficient presentation of soluble antigen by cultured human dendritic cells is maintained by granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor plus interleukin 4 and downregulated by tumor necrosis factor alpha
Ultrastructural recognition of cells with dendritic cell morphology in human aortic intima. Contacting interactions of Vascular Dendritic Cells in athero-resistant and athero-prone areas of the normal aorta
Effect of immunization with homologous LDL and oxidized LDL on early atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic rabbits
The enigmatic plasmacytoid T cells develop into dendritic cells with interleukin (IL)-3 and CD40-ligand
Immunization with homologous oxidized low density lipoprotein reduces neointimal formation after balloon injury in hypercholesterolemic rabbits
Hypercholesterolemia is associated with a T helper (Th) 1/Th2 switch of the autoimmune response in atherosclerotic apo E-knockout mice
Upregulation of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 at atherosclerosis-prone sites on the endothelium in the ApoE-deficient mouse
Mapping of vascular dendritic cells in atherosclerotic arteries suggests their involvement in local immune-inflammatory reactions
Hyperimmunization of apo-E-deficient mice with homologous malondialdehyde low-density lipoprotein suppresses early atherogenesis
Immunization of LDL receptor-deficient mice with homologous malondialdehyde-modified and native LDL reduces progression of atherosclerosis by mechanisms other than induction of high titers of antibodies to oxidative neoepitopes
Mice lacking expression of secondary lymphoid organ chemokine have defects in lymphocyte homing and dendritic cell localization
The atherogenic effects of chlamydia are dependent on serum cholesterol and specific to Chlamydia pneumoniae
Chlamydia pneumoniae infection accelerates the progression of atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice
Patterns of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression in rabbit and mouse atherosclerotic lesions and at sites predisposed to lesion formation
CCR7 coordinates the primary immune response by establishing functional microenvironments in secondary lymphoid organs
A discrete subpopulation of dendritic cells transports apoptotic intestinal epithelial cells to T cell areas of mesenteric lymph nodes
Transfer of CD4(+) T cells aggravates atherosclerosis in immunodeficient apolipoprotein E knockout mice
Chlamydia pneumoniae infection significantly exacerbates aortic atherosclerosis in an LDLR-/- mouse model within six months
Antigen-specific inhibition of effector T cell function in humans after injection of immature dendritic cells
Highly Flexible, Tough, and Self-Healing Supramolecular Polymeric Materials Using Host-Guest Interaction
Orphan nuclear receptor Nur77 Inhibits Oxidized LDL-induced differentiation of RAW264.7 murine macrophage cell line into dendritic like cells
Ingestional and transgenerational effects of the Fukushima nuclear accident on the pale grass blue butterfly
Lipid profile of rheumatoid arthritis patients treated with anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha drugs changes according to disease activity and predicts clinical response
Inflammation, oxidative stress, and cardiovascular disease risk factors in adults with cystic fibrosis
Chronic Kidney Disease is associated with an increase of Intimal Dendritic cells in a comparative autopsy study
Dendritic cells in atherosclerotic inflammation: the complexity of functions and the peculiarities of pathophysiological effects
Exosomes derived from mature dendritic cells increase endothelial inflammation and atherosclerosis via membrane TNF-α mediated NF-κB pathway
Dendritic Cells in Kidney Transplant Biopsy Samples Are Associated with T Cell Infiltration and Poor Allograft Survival
Dendritic cell exosome‑shuttled miRNA146a regulates exosome‑induced endothelial cell inflammation by inhibiting IRAK‑1: A feedback control mechanism
The Association between Inflammation and Pulse Wave Velocity in Dyslipidemia: An Evidence-Based Review.
Bioinformatics analysis reveals the landscape of immune cell infiltration and immune-related pathways participating in the progression of carotid atherosclerotic plaques.
Oxidized low-density lipoprotein stimulates dendritic cells maturation via LOX-1-mediated MAPK/NF-κB pathway.
Atherosclerosis Disease Progression
Atherosclerosis is the buildup of plaque on artery walls, causing stenosis which can eventually lead to clinically apparent cardiovascular disease. Find the latest research on atherosclerosis disease progression here.