The origin of animal multicellularity may be reconstructed by comparing animals with one of their closest living relatives, the choanoflagellate Salpingoeca rosetta. Just as animals develop from a single cell-the zygote-multicellular rosettes of S. rosetta develop from a founding cell. To investigate rosette development, we established forward genetics in S. rosetta. We find that the rosette defect of one mutant, named Rosetteless, maps to a predicted C-type lectin, a class of signaling and adhesion genes required for the development and innate immunity in animals. Rosetteless protein is essential for rosette development and forms an extracellular layer that coats and connects the basal poles of each cell in rosettes. This study provides the first link between genotype and phenotype in choanoflagellates and raises the possibility that a protein with C-type lectin-like domains regulated development in the last common ancestor of choanoflagellates and animals.
Echinicola pacifica gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel flexibacterium isolated from the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius
CLEC-38, a transmembrane protein with C-type lectin-like domains, negatively regulates UNC-40-mediated axon outgrowth and promotes presynaptic development in Caenorhabditis elegans.
Genome analysis of the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Indicates an ancient evolutionary origin for key pattern recognition and cell-signaling protein families.
The protist, Monosiga brevicollis, has a tyrosine kinase signaling network more elaborate and diverse than found in any known metazoan.
C-type lectin DC-SIGN: an adhesion, signalling and antigen-uptake molecule that guides dendritic cells in immunity.
Two different unique cardiac isoforms of protein 4.1R in zebrafish, Danio rerio, and insights into their cardiac functions as related to their unique structures
Genomic survey of premetazoans shows deep conservation of cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases and multiple radiations of receptor tyrosine kinases.
Origin of metazoan cadherin diversity and the antiquity of the classical cadherin/β-catenin complex.
A bacterial sulfonolipid triggers multicellular development in the closest living relatives of animals.
Molecular phylogeny of unikonts: new insights into the position of apusomonads and ancyromonads and the internal relationships of opisthokonts
Premetazoan genome evolution and the regulation of cell differentiation in the choanoflagellate Salpingoeca rosetta
Evolving gene regulatory networks into cellular networks guiding adaptive behavior: an outline how single cells could have evolved into a centralized neurosensory system
Characterization of the Cadherin-Catenin Complex of the Sea Anemone Nematostella vectensis and Implications for the Evolution of Metazoan Cell-Cell Adhesion
Predicted glycosyltransferases promote development and prevent spurious cell clumping in the choanoflagellate S. rosetta
MotifAnalyzer-PDZ: A computational program to investigate the evolution of PDZ-binding target specificity
Genome editing enables reverse genetics of multicellular development in the choanoflagellate Salpingoeca rosetta.
The cadherin-catenin complex is necessary for cell adhesion and embryogenesis in Nematostella vectensis
Evolution of mechanisms controlling epithelial morphogenesis across animals: new insights from dissociation-reaggregation experiments in the sponge Oscarella lobularis.
Antibodies produced by B cells are highly specific for antigen as a result of random gene recombination and somatic hypermutation and affinity maturation. As the main effector of the humoral immune system, antibodies can neutralize foreign cells. Find the latest research on antibody specificity here.