The safety of influenza vaccines in children: An Institute for Vaccine Safety white paper

Vaccine
Neal A HalseyDaniel A Salmon

Abstract

Most influenza vaccines are generally safe, but influenza vaccines can cause rare serious adverse events. Some adverse events, such as fever and febrile seizures, are more common in children than adults. There can be differences in the safety of vaccines in different populations due to underlying differences in genetic predisposition to the adverse event. Live attenuated vaccines have not been studied adequately in children under 2 years of age to determine the risks of adverse events; more studies are needed to address this and several other priority safety issues with all influenza vaccines in children. All vaccines intended for use in children require safety testing in the target age group, especially in young children. Safety of one influenza vaccine in children should not be extrapolated to assumed safety of all influenza vaccines in children. The low rates of adverse events from influenza vaccines should not be a deterrent to the use of influenza vaccines because of the overwhelming evidence of the burden of disease due to influenza in children.

References

Dec 1, 1977·The Journal of Infectious Diseases·L W MyersG R Noble
Dec 1, 1977·The Journal of Infectious Diseases·P D ParkmanH M Meyer
Apr 1, 1978·Archives of Neurology·C R BamfordJ F Laguna
Sep 5, 1990·JAMA : the Journal of the American Medical Association·K L MargolisR E Pluhar
Jan 1, 1990·The American Journal of Medicine·K L MargolisR P Lofgren
Feb 12, 1987·The New England Journal of Medicine·T HemachudhaP Phanuphak
Nov 27, 1969·The New England Journal of Medicine·J M Lane, J D Millar
Aug 18, 1966·The New England Journal of Medicine·F A Oski, J L Naiman
Jan 22, 1982·JAMA : the Journal of the American Medical Association·S W Brostoff, T M White
Nov 23, 1995·The New England Journal of Medicine·J H ReesR A Hughes
May 1, 1994·The Journal of Infectious Diseases·E M SwierkoszRobert B Belshe
Jan 1, 1994·The Journal of Infectious Diseases·Kathryn M EdwardsP F Wright
Aug 1, 1997·Multiple Sclerosis : Clinical and Laboratory Research·F MokhtarianE Lichstein
May 15, 1998·The New England Journal of Medicine·Robert B BelsheM Wolff
Dec 17, 1998·The New England Journal of Medicine·T LaskyR T Chen
Apr 14, 1999·The Annals of Pharmacotherapy·C C Smith
Nov 22, 2000·Archives of Disease in Childhood·M GonzalezH Picolet
Nov 23, 2000·Archives of Internal Medicine·Arnold S MontoJ Schweinle
Feb 24, 2001·Archives of Disease in Childhood·Elizabeth MillerB Taylor
Jan 16, 2002·The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal·Gregory ReddingPaul M Mendelman
Aug 30, 2002·Seminars in Pediatric Infectious Diseases·Neal A Halsey
Jan 22, 2003·British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology·Corri BlackHershel Jick
Apr 23, 2003·Archives of Neurology·Frank DeStefanoVaccine Safety Datalink Research Group, National Immunization Program, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
May 15, 2003·Vaccine·Gaston De SerresDanuta M Skowronski
Dec 6, 2003·Neurological Sciences : Official Journal of the Italian Neurological Society and of the Italian Society of Clinical Neurophysiology·M ZorzonG Cazzato
Feb 12, 2004·The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal·Randy BergenPaul M Mendelman
Mar 23, 2004·Clinical Infectious Diseases : an Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America·Pedram SendiManuel Battegay
Apr 9, 2004·The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal·Güler KanraNicola Principi
Aug 19, 2004·The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology·Peter W HeymannRachel Chamberlain
Dec 23, 2004·Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy : Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy·Hiroto KanekoMasafumi Taniwaki
Jan 25, 2005·The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal·Danuta M SkowronskiDavid W Scheifele
Apr 5, 2005·Pediatrics·Janet A EnglundKathleen M Neuzil
Oct 13, 2005·Statistics in Medicine·H J WhitakerPatrick Musonda
Nov 3, 2005·Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports·Cornelia Mihai, Burk Jubelt
Dec 8, 2005·JAMA : the Journal of the American Medical Association·Hector IzurietaRobert Ball
Jun 29, 2006·The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal·Timo VesikariCAIV-T Transmission Study Group
Aug 26, 2006·American Journal of Kidney Diseases : the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation·Albane Brodin-SartoriusLaurent Juillard
Oct 26, 2006·JAMA : the Journal of the American Medical Association·Simon J HambidgeVaccine Safety Datalink Team
Oct 27, 2006·Vaccine·Marko Bodor, Enoch Montalvo
Nov 7, 2006·Vaccine·Cheng-Hsiu ChouYeong-Hwang Chen
Nov 28, 2006·Vaccine·J RajantieNOPHO ITP working group and five national study groups
Mar 6, 2007·Lancet·Angelo Ravelli, Alberto Martini
Mar 28, 2007·Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety·Dale R BurwenRobert Ball
Apr 24, 2007·Vaccine·Jens U RüggebergBrighton Collaboration Anaphylaxis Working Group
Nov 27, 2007·Vaccine·Barbara RathBrighton Collaboration Bell's Palsy Working Group
Jun 4, 2008·Pediatrics·Steering Committee on Quality Improvement and Management, Subcommittee on Febrile Seizures American Academy of Pediatrics
Aug 14, 2008·Blood·Cindy E NeunertIntercontinental Childhood ITP Study Group Registry II Participants
Sep 3, 2008·Pediatrics·Robert WoodHypersensitivity Working Group of the Clinical Immunization Safety Assessment (CISA) Network
Nov 4, 2008·Journal of Clinical Neuroscience : Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia·William HuynhChris Dedousis
Feb 11, 2009·Brain & Development·Mogens Vestergaard, Jakob Christensen
Feb 12, 2009·Neuroepidemiology·Sreeram V RamagopalanCanadian Collaborative Study Group
Apr 10, 2009·Journal of Clinical Neuroscience : Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia·Steve VucicDavid R Cornblath
Apr 28, 2009·The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal·Humberto Bracco NetoD153-P504 LAIV Study Group
Aug 20, 2009·Pediatric Dermatology·Moshe Ben-ShoshanMarie-Noël Primeau
Sep 23, 2009·Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics·Peter O Behan
Oct 23, 2009·The New England Journal of Medicine·Feng-Cai ZhuJing-Shan Zheng
Nov 12, 2009·Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses·Terry NolanRussell Basser
Nov 26, 2009·Autoimmunity Reviews·Yackov Berkun, Shai Padeh
Dec 17, 2009·Rheumatology International·Mustafa AslanBekir Kocazeybek
Dec 23, 2009·JAMA : the Journal of the American Medical Association·Terry NolanMichael Greenberg
Apr 29, 2010·Current Rheumatology Reports·Sheila Angeles-Han, Sampath Prahalad
Jul 1, 2010·Pediatrics·Nicola KleinVaccine Safety Datalink
Oct 6, 2010·Current Allergy and Asthma Reports·Jay A Lieberman, Scott H Sicherer
Oct 12, 2010·Internal Medicine·Po-Yu LiuChen-Hung Lee
Oct 20, 2010·Vaccine·S AtanasoffR Johann-Liang
Nov 17, 2010·Drug Safety : an International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Drug Experience·Eugène P van PuijenbroekKees van Grootheest
Nov 26, 2010·The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology·Gregory Owens, Andrew MacGinnitie
Dec 2, 2010·Pediatric Nephrology : Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association·Toru Watanabe
Mar 15, 2011·The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology·Kristi K McKinneySusan Laubach
Mar 25, 2011·Journal of Neurology·Mauricio F Farez, Jorge Correale
Apr 30, 2011·Vaccine·Fernanda TavaresHarry Seifert
Jun 8, 2011·Neurology·Emmanuelle WaubantUS Pediatric MS Network
Jun 15, 2011·Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses·Christopher S AmbroseJudith Falloon
Jun 18, 2011·Current Infectious Disease Reports·James J SejvarLawrence B Schonberger
Jul 14, 2011·BMJ : British Medical Journal·Jeanne DielemanVAESCO-GBS Case-Control Study Group
Jul 22, 2011·Genes and Immunity·E SundqvistT Olsson
Aug 4, 2011·Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine·Jason M GlanzEric Weintraub
Aug 11, 2011·Multiple Sclerosis : Clinical and Laboratory Research·Mauricio F FarezJorge Correale
Sep 21, 2011·The Medical Journal of Australia·Heath A KellyP V Effler
Sep 29, 2011·The Journal of Infectious Diseases·Silvana CarrPatricia M Flynn
Oct 1, 2011·Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses·David J WangRobert G Webster
Oct 21, 2011·The Journal of Infectious Diseases·Marika K IwaneDean D Erdman
Nov 1, 2011·Archives of Medical Research·Patricia VidalVesta L Richardson
Dec 14, 2011·Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS·Marc P Girard, Stanley A Plotkin
Jan 19, 2012·Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics·Philip R DormitzerGiuseppe Del Giudice
Apr 3, 2012·The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal·Stan L BlockRobert B Belshe
Apr 5, 2012·Respirology : Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology·Fang Han
Apr 14, 2012·Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses·Paul G Van BuynderBao Gang Fei
May 9, 2012·Nature Medicine·Stephen J Galli, Mindy Tsai
May 23, 2012·The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology·John M KelsoDana V Wallace
Jul 27, 2012·Pediatrics·Ingeborg van der TweelStaR Child Health Group
Jul 27, 2012·Pediatrics International : Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society·Katsunori FujiiYoichi Kohno
Jul 28, 2012·Vaccine·Ali Rowhani-RahbarRisk Interval Working Group of the Clinical Immunization Safety Assessment Network
Aug 10, 2012·Clinical and Vaccine Immunology : CVI·Masaki ShimizuAkihiro Yachie
Aug 15, 2012·Seminars in Pediatric Neurology·Jeffrey J Ekstrand
Sep 11, 2012·The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology·Isabelle RouleauPublic Health Agency of Canada–Canadian Institutes for Health Research Influenza Research Network
Sep 14, 2012·American Journal of Public Health·Dale R BurwenSafety Surveillance Working Group
Sep 26, 2012·Expert Review of Vaccines·Ali Rowhani-RahbarRoger Baxter
Oct 12, 2012·Current Allergy and Asthma Reports·Scott P Commins, Thomas A E Platts-Mills
Oct 27, 2012·Blood·Lamiae Grimaldi-BensoudaPGRx Immune Thrombocytopenia Study Group
Nov 9, 2012·Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine : JABFM·Matthew G BarnesKaren Hogan
Nov 30, 2012·BMJ Case Reports·Maliha Farhana ShaikhHasan Tahir
Dec 12, 2012·The American Journal of the Medical Sciences·Rana S Bonds, Brent C Kelly
Dec 13, 2012·Multiple Sclerosis : Clinical and Laboratory Research·Emmanuelle WaubantJudith A James
Jan 9, 2013·Pediatrics·Katherine A PoehlingCarolyn B Bridges
Feb 28, 2013·Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics·Prasad S KulkarniRajeev M Dhere
Apr 2, 2013·European Journal of Epidemiology·Francesca GaleottiITANG study group
Apr 5, 2013·American Journal of Reproductive Immunology : AJRI·Lisa M ChristianJay D Iams
Apr 5, 2013·Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses·Stephen B LambertMichael H Lai
Apr 11, 2013·Multiple Sclerosis : Clinical and Laboratory Research·Lauren B KruppInternational Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis Study Group
May 3, 2013·Journal of the American Pharmacists Association : JAPhA·Stephan L Foster, McLisa V Davis
Jul 26, 2013·Brain : a Journal of Neurology·Yves DauvilliersNarcoflu-VF study group
Aug 2, 2013·Pediatric Allergy and Immunology : Official Publication of the European Society of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology·Robert Wood
Aug 30, 2013·Expert Review of Vaccines·Nicola Principi, Susanna Esposito
Oct 24, 2013·Vaccine·Natalie L McCarthyEric Weintraub
Nov 19, 2013·Pediatric Clinics of North America·David T Teachey, Michele P Lambert
Nov 21, 2013·Allergy·S DhamiEAACI Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Guidelines Group
Nov 29, 2013·Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics·Ian F Cook
Dec 3, 2013·Autoimmune Diseases·Joaquin A Pena, Timothy E Lotze
Dec 20, 2013·Science Translational Medicine·Alberto K De la Herrán-AritaEmmanuel Mignot
Jan 1, 2014·Frontiers in Microbiology·Yuzaburo Inoue, Naoki Shimojo
Jan 9, 2014·Reviews in the Neurosciences·Amene SaghazadehNima Rezaei
Jan 15, 2014·Clinical Infectious Diseases : an Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America·Claudia VellozziKaren Broder
Jan 22, 2014·The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal·David P GreenbergMichael D Decker
Feb 12, 2014·Autoimmunity Reviews·Dimitrios Karussis, Panayiota Petrou
Mar 7, 2014·Vaccine·Jennifer HaasJosé M Otero
Apr 12, 2014·Skeletal Radiology·Gokcan OkurLaurie M Lomasney
May 3, 2014·Science Translational Medicine·Stephan A BartNiranjan Kanesa-Thasan
May 13, 2014·Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety·Jürgen PrestelGBS Study Group
May 14, 2014·Euro Surveillance : Bulletin Européen Sur Les Maladies Transmissibles = European Communicable Disease Bulletin·D O'FlanaganE Purcell
May 23, 2014·Lancet Neurology·Markku PartinenOuti Vaarala
Jun 13, 2014·The World Allergy Organization Journal·F Estelle R SimonsMargitta Worm
Jun 26, 2014·Expert Review of Vaccines·John M Kelso
Jul 6, 2014·Trends in Microbiology·Kathy Triantafilou, Martha Triantafilou
Jul 24, 2014·Arquivos de neuro-psiquiatria·Ronaldo LessaHildo Azevedo
Sep 2, 2014·The American Journal of Case Reports·Aaron Sacheli, Raymond Bauer
Sep 13, 2014·Journal of Infection in Developing Countries·Adib Rodriguez SolaresNicola Groth
Sep 17, 2014·Pediatrics·Nienke E VerbeekEva H Brilstra
Oct 18, 2014·Korean journal of pediatrics·Sajun Chung
Nov 20, 2015·Science Translational Medicine·Lawrence Steinman, S Sohail Ahmed

Citations

Jan 4, 2018·Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics·Claudia Maria TrombettaEmanuele Montomoli
Oct 11, 2017·Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses·Kawsar R TalaatJay H Bream
Jun 23, 2019·Expert Review of Vaccines·Justin R Ortiz, Kathleen M Neuzil
Aug 8, 2019·Ciência & saúde coletiva·Tiago Pereira de SouzaEdson Duarte Moreira Júnior
Jun 12, 2020·Euro Surveillance : Bulletin Européen Sur Les Maladies Transmissibles = European Communicable Disease Bulletin·Julie A BettingerCanadian Immunization Research Network
Nov 3, 2020·The Journal of Infectious Diseases·Daniel A SalmonBruce C Carleton
Jan 13, 2019·Mayo Clinic Proceedings·Sara Y TartofSteven J Jacobsen

Related Concepts

Institutes
Product Approval
Seizure, Febrile, Simple
Fever
Allergic Reaction
Influenza
FluMist
Vaccination
Vaccines, Attenuated
Benefit-Risk Assessment

Trending Feeds

COVID-19

Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.

Evolution of Pluripotency

Pluripotency refers to the ability of a cell to develop into three primary germ cell layers of the embryo. This feed focuses on the mechanisms that underlie the evolution of pluripotency. Here is the latest research.

Lipidomics & Rhinovirus Infection

Lipidomics can be used to examine the lipid species involved with pathogenic conditions, such as viral associated inflammation. Discovered the latest research on Lipidomics & Rhinovirus Infection.

Spatio-Temporal Regulation of DNA Repair

DNA repair is a complex process regulated by several different classes of enzymes, including ligases, endonucleases, and polymerases. This feed focuses on the spatial and temporal regulation that accompanies DNA damage signaling and repair enzymes and processes.

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Chronic fatigue syndrome is a disease characterized by unexplained disabling fatigue; the pathology of which is incompletely understood. Discover the latest research on chronic fatigue syndrome here.

Torsion Dystonia

Torsion dystonia is a movement disorder characterized by loss of control of voluntary movements appearing as sustained muscle contractions and/or abnormal postures. Here is the latest research.

Archaeal RNA Polymerase

Archaeal RNA polymerases are most similar to eukaryotic RNA polymerase II but require the support of only two archaeal general transcription factors, TBP (TATA-box binding protein) and TFB (archaeal homologue of the eukaryotic general transcription factor TFIIB) to initiate basal transcription. Here is the latest research on archaeal RNA polymerases.

Alzheimer's Disease: MS4A

Variants within the membrane-spanning 4-domains subfamily A (MS4A) gene cluster have recently been implicated in Alzheimer's disease in genome-wide association studies. Here is the latest research on Alzheimer's disease and MS4A.

Central Pontine Myelinolysis

Central Pontine Myelinolysis is a neurologic disorder caused most frequently by rapid correction of hyponatremia and is characterized by demyelination that affects the central portion of the base of the pons. Here is the latest research on this disease.

Related Papers

WMJ : Official Publication of the State Medical Society of Wisconsin
R Gross
Postgraduate Medical Journal
R F Morgan, D King
Postgraduate Medical Journal
P LewisJ J Allen
© 2021 Meta ULC. All rights reserved