Serotonin is an important gastrointestinal signaling molecule. It is a paracrine messenger utilized by enterochromaffin (EC) cells, which function as sensory transducers. Serotonin activates intrinsic and extrinsic primary afferent neurons to, respectively, initiate peristaltic and secretory reflexes and to transmit information to the central nervous system. Serotonin is also a neurotransmitter utilized by a system of long descending myenteric interneurons. Serotonin is synthesized through the actions of 2 different tryptophan hydroxylases, TpH1 and TpH2, which are found, respectively, in EC cells and neurons. Serotonin is inactivated by the serotonin reuptake transporter (SERT)-mediated uptake into enterocytes or neurons. The presence of many serotonin receptor subtypes enables selective drugs to be designed to therapeutically modulate gastrointestinal motility, secretion, and sensation. Current examples include tegaserod, a 5-HT(4) partial agonist, which has been approved for treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) with constipation in women and for chronic constipation in men and women. The 5-HT(3) antagonists, granisetron and ondansetron, are useful in combating the nausea associated with cancer chemotherapy, and aloset...Continue Reading
Associated Clinical Trials
Uptake and release of 5-hydroxytryptamine by enteric 5-hydroxytryptaminergic neurones: effects of fluoxetine (Lilly 110140) and chlorimipramine
5-hydroxytryptamine4 receptor agonists facilitate cholinergic transmission in the circular muscle of guinea pig ileum: antagonism by tropisetron and DAU 6285
Nicotinic and muscarinic modulation of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) release from porcine and canine small intestine
Selective 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 receptor antagonism with ondansetron as treatment for diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome: a pilot study
Use of transgenic mice to infer the biological properties of small intestinal stem cells and to examine the lineage relationships of their descendants
Type-specific localization of monoamine oxidase in the enteric nervous system: relationship to 5-hydroxytryptamine, neuropeptides, and sympathetic nerves
Gastric emptying and subjective symptoms of nausea: lack of effects of a 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 antagonist ondansetron on gastric emptying in patients with gastric stasis syndrome
The effects of granisetron, ICS 205-930 and ondansetron on the visceral pain reflex induced by duodenal distension
Serotonin function and the mechanism of antidepressant action. Reversal of antidepressant-induced remission by rapid depletion of plasma tryptophan
Human pharmacology of renzapride: a new gastrokinetic benzamide without dopamine antagonist properties
Effects of the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist ICS 205-930 on fat-delayed gastric emptying and antral motor activity
Spontaneous release of endogenous 5-hydroxytryptamine and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid from the isolated vascularly perfused ileum of the guinea-pig
Adrenergic modulation of the release of 5-hydroxytryptamine from the vascularly perfused ileum of the guinea-pig
The effects of vagal nerve stimulation on endoluminal release of serotonin and substance P into the feline small intestine
Ultrastructure of enterochromaffin cells and associated neural and vascular elements in the mouse duodenum
Radioisotopic studies of the binding, exchange, and distribution of 5-hydroxytryptamine synthesized from its radioactive precursor
Neurons with 5-hydroxytryptamine-like immunoreactivity in the enteric nervous system: their visualization and reactions to drug treatment
Neurons with 5-hydroxytryptamine-like immunoreactivity in the enteric nervous system: their projections in the guinea-pig small intestine
Characterization of the role of calcium and sodium channels in the stimulus secretion coupling of 5-hydroxytryptamine release from porcine enterochromaffin cells
Antidepressant- and cocaine-sensitive human serotonin transporter: molecular cloning, expression, and chromosomal localization
Visceral perception in irritable bowel syndrome. Rectal and gastric responses to distension and serotonin type 3 antagonism
Life without peripheral serotonin: insights from tryptophan hydroxylase 1 knockout mice reveal the existence of paracrine/autocrine serotonergic networks
CREB mediates brain serotonin regulation of bone mass through its expression in ventromedial hypothalamic neurons
Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection in cases of irritable bowel syndrome and comparison with Crohn's disease and Johne's disease: common neural and immune pathogenicities.
Acute tryptophan depletion alters the effective connectivity of emotional arousal circuitry during visceral stimuli in healthy women
Neuronal stimulation with 5-hydroxytryptamine 4 receptor induces anti-inflammatory actions via α7nACh receptors on muscularis macrophages associated with postoperative ileus
Eukaryotic-microbiota crosstalk: potential mechanisms for health benefits of prebiotics and probiotics
The role of mechanical forces and adenosine in the regulation of intestinal enterochromaffin cell serotonin secretion.
Critical role of 5-HT1A, 5-HT3, and 5-HT7 receptor subtypes in the initiation, generation, and propagation of the murine colonic migrating motor complex.
Irritable bowel syndrome: methods, mechanisms, and pathophysiology. Genetic epidemiology and pharmacogenetics in irritable bowel syndrome.
Altered purinergic signaling in colorectal dorsal root ganglion neurons contributes to colorectal hypersensitivity
Relationships among body mass, brain size, gut length, and blood tryptophan and serotonin in young wild-type mice.
Changes in salivary physiological stress markers induced by muscle stretching in patients with irritable bowel syndrome
Changes in the symptom pattern and the densities of large-intestinal endocrine cells following Campylobacter infection in irritable bowel syndrome: a case report
A review of the serotonin transporter and prenatal cortisol in the development of autism spectrum disorders
Pharmacological and clinical profile of ramosetron hydrochloride (Irribow), a novel therapeutic agent for irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea
Neurogenic and myogenic properties of pan-colonic motor patterns and their spatiotemporal organization in rats
The stimulatory adenosine receptor ADORA2B regulates serotonin (5-HT) synthesis and release in oxygen-depleted EC cells in inflammatory bowel disease
Pharmacological characterization of a 5-HT1-type serotonin receptor in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum
Structure-activity relationships of constrained phenylethylamine ligands for the serotonin 5-HT2 receptors
5-HT4 receptor-mediated neuroprotection and neurogenesis in the enteric nervous system of adult mice.
Dependence of serotonergic and other nonadrenergic enteric neurons on norepinephrine transporter expression
Subjective food hypersensitivity: assessment of enterochromaffin cell markers in blood and gut lavage fluid.
Polymorphism in HTR3D shows different risks for acute chemotherapy-induced vomiting after anthracycline chemotherapy
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