PMID: 8481155Mar 1, 1993Paper

The snake on the caduceus: dimensions of medical and psychiatric responsibility in the Third Reich

The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
E Hunter


The literature on the activities of medical professionals during the tumultuous years of the Third Reich has, over the last decade, increased substantially. However, many questions remain unanswered and the subject is likely to receive further attention following recent access to previously restricted archival material in Eastern Europe. In this paper, based on the English language literature, the author explores the role of medicine, and in particular psychiatry, in defining the bio-medical vision that was central to Nazi ideology.


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