The spectrum of HIV-related nephropathy in children

Pediatric Nephrology : Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
Duran RamsuranThajasvarie Naicker

Abstract

Despite the burden of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease in Southern Africa, there have been few reports of HIV-related nephropathy in children. This study outlines the spectrum of HIV-1-related kidney diseases of children in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. A review of the clinical presentation, laboratory and histopathological findings of children diagnosed with HIV-related nephropathy. Forty-nine out of 71 children (1-16 years old) with HIV-1 related nephropathy underwent kidney biopsy. The most common histopathological finding was focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), which was present in 32 (65.3%) children; 13 (26.5%) having collapsing glomerulopathy and 19 (38.8%) classic FSGS. The majority of patients showed haematological (86.4%) and electrolyte abnormalities (69.4%). Renal impairment was present in 41% of patients on initial presentation. However, end-stage kidney disease was present in only 4% of these patients. All patients were treated with highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART), the majority (79.6%) showed decreased proteinuria with 38.8% having complete remission. This study, one of the largest series of children reported from Africa, demonstrates that nephrotic syndrome due to HIV-associated neph...Continue Reading

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