The surface of the ice-age Earth

CLIMAP Project Members


In the Northern Hemisphere the 18,000 B.P. world differed strikingly from the present in the huge land-based ice sheets, reaching approximately 3 km in thickness, and in a dramatic increase in the extent of pack ice and marine-based ice sheets. In the Southern Hemisphere the most striking contrast was the greater extent of sea ice. On land, grasslands, steppes, and deserts spread at the expense of forests. This change in vegetation, together with extensive areas of permanent ice and sandy outwash plains, caused an increase in global surface albedo over modern values. Sea level was lower by at least 85 m. The 18,000 B.P. oceans were characterized by: (i) marked steepening of thermal gradients along polar frontal systems, particularly in the North Atlantic and Antarctic; (ii) an equatorward displacement of polar frontal systems; (iii) general cooling of most surface waters, with a global average of -2.3 degrees C; (iv) increased cooling and up-welling along equatorial divergences in the Pacific and Atlantic; (v) low temperatures extending equatorward along the western coast of Africa, Australia, and South America, indicating increased upwelling and advection of cool waters; and (vi) nearly stable positions and temperatures of the...Continue Reading


Mar 1, 1996·American Journal of Physical Anthropology·T Hanihara
Sep 1, 1981·Behavioural Brain Research·B L Finlay, D R Sengelaub
Oct 1, 1994·Trends in Ecology & Evolution·M B Davis
Jul 1, 1997·Bulletin of the Medical Library Association·B F Schloman
Apr 1, 1997·Comptes rendus de l'Académie des sciences. Série III, Sciences de la vie·L ChikhiF Bonhomme
Sep 13, 2002·Nature·Kurt LambeckEmma-Kate Potter
Nov 15, 2007·Proceedings. Biological Sciences·Grant R BiggPhillip Williamson
Jun 20, 2006·Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences·G W EvattN R J Hulton
Sep 27, 2008·Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences·Luke Skinner
Jun 1, 2002·Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution·Matthew P HareStephen R Palumbi
Jun 19, 2010·Science·Timothy HerbertZhonghui Liu
Feb 19, 2011·Annual Review of Marine Science·Wolfgang H Berger
Feb 18, 2016·Nature Communications·Alan M HaywoodAisling M Dolan
Jun 29, 2012·Ecology Letters·Moriaki YasuharaDanielle K Stoll
Mar 16, 2016·Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences·Isabel S FentonAndy Purvis
Oct 1, 2015·Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society·Moriaki YasuharaBoris Worm
Jan 1, 1994·Environmental Pollution·M B McElroy
Nov 1, 2000·Nature·D M Sigman, E A Boyle
Aug 13, 2004·Proceedings. Biological Sciences·Amit Huppert, Andrew R Solow
Mar 28, 2002·Proceedings. Biological Sciences·J A ToddP Jung
Jun 14, 2003·Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences·Michal Kucera, K Darling
Jun 24, 2004·Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences·Sharon A CowlingSteven A Spall
Sep 3, 2004·Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution·Katja T C A PeijnenburgSteph B J Menken
Jan 5, 2018·Nature·Rachel H R Stanley
Feb 1, 1990·Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution·Ira J RopsonDennis A Powers
Aug 1, 1994·Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution·Xiao-Ru Wang, Alfred E Szmidt
Jan 1, 2018·Nature·Rachel H R Stanley
Aug 28, 2020·Nature·Jessica E TierneyChristopher J Poulsen
Dec 1, 1994·Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution·Michael E Hellberg
Dec 1, 1991·Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution·Stephen R Palumbi, Bailey D Kessing
Feb 1, 2017·Science Advances·Shannon E LoomisMeredith A Kelly

Related Concepts

Trending Feeds


Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.

Neural Activity: Imaging

Imaging of neural activity in vivo has developed rapidly recently with the advancement of fluorescence microscopy, including new applications using miniaturized microscopes (miniscopes). This feed follows the progress in this growing field.

The Tendon Seed Network

Tendons are rich in the extracellular matrix and are abundant throughout the body providing essential roles including structure and mobility. The transcriptome of tendons is being compiled to understand the micro-anatomical functioning of tendons. Discover the latest research pertaining to the Tendon Seed Network here.

Myocardial Stunning

Myocardial stunning is a mechanical dysfunction that persists after reperfusion of previously ischemic tissue in the absence of irreversible damage including myocardial necrosis. Here is the latest research.

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Chronic fatigue syndrome is a disease characterized by unexplained disabling fatigue; the pathology of which is incompletely understood. Discover the latest research on chronic fatigue syndrome here.


Incretins are metabolic hormones that stimulate a decrease in glucose levels in the blood and they have been implicated in glycemic regulation in the remission phase of type 1 diabetes. Here is the latest research.

Chromatin Regulation and Circadian Clocks

The circadian clock plays an important role in regulating transcriptional dynamics through changes in chromatin folding and remodelling. Discover the latest research on Chromatin Regulation and Circadian Clocks here.

Long COVID-19

“Long Covid-19” describes illness in patients who are reporting long-lasting effects of the SARS-CoV-19 infection, often long after they have recovered from acute Covid-19. Ongoing health issues often reported include low exercise tolerance and breathing difficulties, chronic tiredness, and mental health problems such as post-traumatic stress disorder and depression. This feed follows the latest research into Long Covid.

Spatio-Temporal Regulation of DNA Repair

DNA repair is a complex process regulated by several different classes of enzymes, including ligases, endonucleases, and polymerases. This feed focuses on the spatial and temporal regulation that accompanies DNA damage signaling and repair enzymes and processes.