The Unified Medical Language System (UMLS): integrating biomedical terminology

Nucleic Acids Research
Olivier Bodenreider

Abstract

The Unified Medical Language System (http://umlsks.nlm.nih.gov) is a repository of biomedical vocabularies developed by the US National Library of Medicine. The UMLS integrates over 2 million names for some 900,000 concepts from more than 60 families of biomedical vocabularies, as well as 12 million relations among these concepts. Vocabularies integrated in the UMLS Metathesaurus include the NCBI taxonomy, Gene Ontology, the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH), OMIM and the Digital Anatomist Symbolic Knowledge Base. UMLS concepts are not only inter-related, but may also be linked to external resources such as GenBank. In addition to data, the UMLS includes tools for customizing the Metathesaurus (MetamorphoSys), for generating lexical variants of concept names (lvg) and for extracting UMLS concepts from text (MetaMap). The UMLS knowledge sources are updated quarterly. All vocabularies are available at no fee for research purposes within an institution, but UMLS users are required to sign a license agreement. The UMLS knowledge sources are distributed on CD-ROM and by FTP.

References

Jan 11, 2000·Nucleic Acids Research·K D Pruitt, D R Maglott
Dec 26, 2001·Nucleic Acids Research·Dennis A BensonDavid L Wheeler
Jan 10, 2003·Nucleic Acids Research·Judith A BlakeUNKNOWN Mouse Genome Database Group
Jan 25, 2003·Current Opinion in Neurology·Michael E BaserDavid H Gutmann

❮ Previous
Next ❯

Citations

Jul 17, 2008·Comparative and Functional Genomics·Christian J Stoeckert, Helen Parkinson
Jul 17, 2008·Comparative and Functional Genomics·Alexa T McCray
Jul 17, 2008·Comparative and Functional Genomics·Gilberto FragosoLarry Wright
Aug 7, 2007·Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz·J Ingenerf
Jul 25, 2012·Human Genetics·Rosario M Piro
Aug 6, 2009·Annals of Biomedical Engineering·Brian Yeakley, Tarun Goswami
Sep 10, 2010·Journal of Medical Systems·Leonardo LezcanoMiguel-Angel Sicilia
Oct 4, 2011·Journal of Medical Systems·Kavishwar B WagholikarAshok W Deshpande
Feb 9, 2008·Clinical & Translational Oncology : Official Publication of the Federation of Spanish Oncology Societies and of the National Cancer Institute of Mexico·Gonzalo Gómez-López, Alfonso Valencia
Sep 8, 2010·Radiological Physics and Technology·Naoki NishimotoMasaji Maezawa
Jan 1, 1994·International Journal of Bio-medical Computing·D A Lindberg
Oct 1, 1994·International Journal of Bio-medical Computing·M JoubertA Tafazzoli
Jun 1, 1995·Artificial Intelligence in Medicine·G van HeijstM Stefanelli
Oct 1, 1995·Artificial Intelligence in Medicine·T Timpka
Nov 21, 2000·Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine·C Brandt, P Nadkarni
Mar 12, 2002·Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine·Nigel StrangJean Pierre Boissel
Jun 1, 1997·Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine·P M Nadkarni
Jun 9, 1998·Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine·C E Kahn
Feb 5, 2000·Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine·W N StrangJ P Boissel
Mar 23, 2004·Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology·Art PapierUNKNOWN Dermatology Lexicon Project
Oct 6, 2000·Controlled Clinical Trials·C A BrandtP L Miller
Mar 22, 2001·Artificial Intelligence in Medicine·S QuagliniS Panzarasa
Mar 31, 1998·Artificial Intelligence in Medicine·J J Cimino
Aug 1, 1997·International Journal of Medical Informatics·P DenierR Duvauferrier
Sep 3, 1998·International Journal of Medical Informatics·M JoubertM Fieschi
Dec 16, 1998·International Journal of Medical Informatics·R Baud
Jun 29, 1999·Studies in Health Technology and Informatics·E M van Mulligen
Apr 8, 1999·International Journal of Medical Informatics·C E Kahn
May 21, 2003·Journal of Biomedical Informatics·Carol FriedmanAndrey Rzhetsky
Jan 13, 2006·Nature Biotechnology·Atul J Butte, Isaac S Kohane
May 3, 2012·Nature Reviews. Genetics·Peter B JensenSøren Brunak
Dec 31, 2005·The New England Journal of Medicine·Deborah A ZarinNicholas C Ide
Jul 11, 2009·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·Min XuXianghong Jasmine Zhou
Apr 3, 2010·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·Haiyan HuangXianghong Jasmine Zhou
Mar 27, 2012·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·Patrick R SchmidBonnie Berger
Aug 12, 2006·Journal of Computational Biology : a Journal of Computational Molecular Cell Biology·Yair HoreshRon Unger
Jul 28, 2009·Journal of Computational Biology : a Journal of Computational Molecular Cell Biology·Michael R MehanXianghong Jasmine Zhou
Feb 4, 2012·Journal of Computational Biology : a Journal of Computational Molecular Cell Biology·Yael SilberbergRoded Sharan
Oct 13, 2012·Journal of Computational Biology : a Journal of Computational Molecular Cell Biology·Tomoya MoriTatsuya Akutsu
Aug 24, 2010·Omics : a Journal of Integrative Biology·Yukie AkuneKiyoko F Aoki-Kinoshita
Oct 12, 2011·Briefings in Functional Genomics·Paul N SchofieldGeorgios V Gkoutos
Aug 11, 2006·Briefings in Bioinformatics·Olivier Bodenreider, Robert Stevens
Sep 30, 2008·Briefings in Bioinformatics·Pankaj Agarwal, David B Searls
Jun 30, 2011·Briefings in Bioinformatics·Christos AndronisAris Persidis

❮ Previous
Next ❯

Related Concepts

Trending Feeds

COVID-19

Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.

Blastomycosis

Blastomycosis fungal infections spread through inhaling Blastomyces dermatitidis spores. Discover the latest research on blastomycosis fungal infections here.

Nuclear Pore Complex in ALS/FTD

Alterations in nucleocytoplasmic transport, controlled by the nuclear pore complex, may be involved in the pathomechanism underlying multiple neurodegenerative diseases including Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Dementia. Here is the latest research on the nuclear pore complex in ALS and FTD.

Applications of Molecular Barcoding

The concept of molecular barcoding is that each original DNA or RNA molecule is attached to a unique sequence barcode. Sequence reads having different barcodes represent different original molecules, while sequence reads having the same barcode are results of PCR duplication from one original molecule. Discover the latest research on molecular barcoding here.

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Chronic fatigue syndrome is a disease characterized by unexplained disabling fatigue; the pathology of which is incompletely understood. Discover the latest research on chronic fatigue syndrome here.

Evolution of Pluripotency

Pluripotency refers to the ability of a cell to develop into three primary germ cell layers of the embryo. This feed focuses on the mechanisms that underlie the evolution of pluripotency. Here is the latest research.

Position Effect Variegation

Position Effect Variagation occurs when a gene is inactivated due to its positioning near heterochromatic regions within a chromosome. Discover the latest research on Position Effect Variagation here.

STING Receptor Agonists

Stimulator of IFN genes (STING) are a group of transmembrane proteins that are involved in the induction of type I interferon that is important in the innate immune response. The stimulation of STING has been an active area of research in the treatment of cancer and infectious diseases. Here is the latest research on STING receptor agonists.

Microbicide

Microbicides are products that can be applied to vaginal or rectal mucosal surfaces with the goal of preventing, or at least significantly reducing, the transmission of sexually transmitted infections. Here is the latest research on microbicides.