Humans and other animals are motivated to act so as to maximize their subjective reward rate. Here, we propose that reward rate maximization is accomplished by adjusting a context-dependent "urgency signal," which influences both the commitment to a developing action choice and the vigor with which the ensuing action is performed. We review behavioral and neurophysiological data suggesting that urgency is controlled by projections from the basal ganglia to cerebral cortical regions, influencing neural activity related to decision making as well as activity related to action execution. We also review evidence suggesting that different individuals possess specific policies for adjusting their urgency signal to particular contextual variables, such that urgency constitutes an individual trait which jointly influences a wide range of behavioral measures commonly related to the overall quality and hastiness of one's decisions and actions. Consequently, we argue that a central mechanism for reward rate maximization provides a potential link between personality traits such as impulsivity, as well as some of the motivation-related symptomology of clinical disorders such as depression and Parkinson's disease.
Pathological gambling behaviour: emergence secondary to treatment of Parkinson's disease with dopaminergic agents
"Paradoxical kinesis" is not a hallmark of Parkinson's disease but a general property of the motor system
The other face of depression, reduced positive affect: the role of catecholamines in causation and cure
Integration of impulsivity and positive mood to predict risky behavior: development and validation of a measure of positive urgency
Striatal dopaminergic activity (FDOPA-PET) associated with cognitive items of a depression scale (MADRS) in Parkinson's disease
Research domain criteria (RDoC): toward a new classification framework for research on mental disorders
Intact reward learning but elevated delay discounting in Parkinson's disease patients with impulsive-compulsive spectrum behaviors
Subthalamic nucleus stimulation influences expression and suppression of impulsive behaviour in Parkinson's disease
Distinct representations of a perceptual decision and the associated oculomotor plan in the monkey lateral intraparietal area
Measurement of constructs using self-report and behavioral lab tasks: is there overlap in nomothetic span and construct representation for impulsivity?
Effort-based decision-making in major depressive disorder: a translational model of motivational anhedonia
Deciding when to decide: time-variant sequential sampling models explain the emergence of value-based decisions in the human brain
Psychomotor retardation in depression: a systematic review of diagnostic, pathophysiologic, and therapeutic implications
Genetic risk for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder contributes to neurodevelopmental traits in the general population
Models of Impulsivity with a Focus on Waiting Impulsivity: Translational Potential for Neuropsychiatric Disorders
Context-dependent urgency influences speed-accuracy trade-offs in decision-making and movement execution
Abnormal reward functioning across substance use disorders and major depressive disorder: Considering reward as a transdiagnostic mechanism
Motivational Modulation of Self-Initiated and Externally Triggered Movement Speed Induced by Threat of Shock: Experimental Evidence for Paradoxical Kinesis in Parkinson's Disease
Modulation of Premotor and Primary Motor Cortical Activity during Volitional Adjustments of Speed-Accuracy Trade-Offs
Activational and effort-related aspects of motivation: neural mechanisms and implications for psychopathology
In Parkinson's disease STN stimulation enhances responsiveness of movement initiation speed to high reward value
Pathological gambling in Parkinson's disease: what are the risk factors and what is the role of impulsivity?
Multidimensional prediction of treatment response to antidepressants with cognitive control and functional MRI
Reevaluating the Efficacy and Predictability of Antidepressant Treatments: A Symptom Clustering Approach
Shaping vulnerability to addiction - the contribution of behavior, neural circuits and molecular mechanisms
Method to assess the temporal persistence of potential biometric features: Application to oculomotor, gait, face and brain structure databases
Neural Correlates of Evidence and Urgency During Human Perceptual Decision-Making in Dynamically Changing Conditions
Humans sacrifice decision-making for action execution when a demanding control of movement is required
Temporal dynamics of sequential motor activation in a dual-prime paradigm: Insights from conditional accuracy and hazard functions
Basal ganglia in Parkinson's disease (MDS)
The basal ganglia is comprised of the neostriatum, the external and internal pallidal segments, the subthalamic nucleus, the substantia nigra pars reticulata, and the pars compacta of the substantia nigra. The basal ganglia circuitry is responsible for the correct execution of voluntary movements and is implicated in Parkinson's disease. Here is the latest research investigating the basal ganglia in Parkinson's disease.
Basal Ganglia are a group of subcortical nuclei in the brain associated with control of voluntary motor movements, procedural and habit learning, emotion, and cognition. Here is the latest research.