PMID: 3994Mar 1, 1976

Theoretic significance of pH dependence of narcotics and narcotic antagonists in clinical anesthesia

Anesthesia and Analgesia
D W BensonW S Koski


Determination of the effect of pH and temperature on pKa partition, and drug distribution coefficients in a series of common narcotics and their antagonists has shown that within the range of blood pH (7.1 to 7.7) encountered in the practice of anesthesiology, marked differences of distribution of the drugs between a model lipid (octanol) and water can occur. When these data are considered in the light of clinical experience with narcotics used in patients undergoing or recovering from surgical procedures, a correlation between the depth and duration of narcosis or the efficacy of narcotic antidotes and ventilatory status is seen. This correlation can be explained in part if the influence of blood pH on the probable CNS/blood distribution of a given drug is taken into consideration. Support is given to this proposal by representative studies in the literature. The very different drug distribution coefficients of two closely related narcotic antagonists, naloxone and naltrexone, correctly predicted the faster onset and shorter duration of the former, which was confirmed by reported clinical observations.


Apr 14, 2015·The Journal of Physical Chemistry. a·HongBo NingXiangYuan Li
Jan 1, 1984·Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica. Supplementum·G Nordberg
Oct 21, 2015·The Journal of Physical Chemistry. a·Thomas C Allison, Donald R Burgess
May 1, 2012·Pharmaceutical Development and Technology·A O BetancourtR K Vinson
Nov 13, 2014·The Journal of Physical Chemistry. a·Francesca RiboniA J Colussi
Feb 28, 2014·The Journal of Physical Chemistry. a·Konstantin V Popov, Vadim D Knyazev
Mar 12, 2009·Journal of the American Chemical Society·Elizabeth A MaderJames M Mayer
Jul 10, 2014·The Journal of Physical Chemistry. a·Gustav Bojesen
Sep 8, 2011·The Journal of Physical Chemistry. B·Vladimir N Emel'yanenkoAxel Schulz
Mar 19, 2009·Journal of the American Chemical Society·Christopher R WaidmannJames M Mayer
Nov 11, 2014·The Journal of Physical Chemistry. B·Sergey P VerevkinSvetlana V Melkhanova
Aug 30, 2011·Accounts of Chemical Research·Rajamani Gounder, Enrique Iglesia
Dec 14, 2012·The Journal of Physical Chemistry. a·Suarwee Snitsiriwat, Joseph W Bozzelli
Feb 3, 2009·Journal of the American Chemical Society·Steven E WheelerWesley D Allen
Jan 17, 2009·Journal of the American Chemical Society·Rajamani Gounder, Enrique Iglesia
Jan 10, 2012·The Journal of Physical Chemistry. a·Ilie Fishtik
Oct 31, 2014·Journal of the American Chemical Society·Evan A HaidaszDerek A Pratt
Dec 2, 2011·The Journal of Physical Chemistry. a·Artur Ratkiewicz, Barbara Bankiewicz
May 24, 2011·The Journal of Physical Chemistry. a·Jian-ying ZhangYin-sheng Huang
Jul 1, 1999·SAR and QSAR in Environmental Research·D J KleinL Bytautas
Nov 26, 2003·Journal of Pain & Palliative Care Pharmacotherapy·Kenneth S Latta

Related Concepts

Anesthesia Procedures
Paracervical Block
Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
Naloxone, (5 beta,9 alpha,13 alpha,14 alpha)-Isomer
Narcotic Antagonists
Narcotic Effect

Trending Feeds


Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.

Neural Activity: Imaging

Imaging of neural activity in vivo has developed rapidly recently with the advancement of fluorescence microscopy, including new applications using miniaturized microscopes (miniscopes). This feed follows the progress in this growing field.

The Tendon Seed Network

Tendons are rich in the extracellular matrix and are abundant throughout the body providing essential roles including structure and mobility. The transcriptome of tendons is being compiled to understand the micro-anatomical functioning of tendons. Discover the latest research pertaining to the Tendon Seed Network here.

Myocardial Stunning

Myocardial stunning is a mechanical dysfunction that persists after reperfusion of previously ischemic tissue in the absence of irreversible damage including myocardial necrosis. Here is the latest research.

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Chronic fatigue syndrome is a disease characterized by unexplained disabling fatigue; the pathology of which is incompletely understood. Discover the latest research on chronic fatigue syndrome here.


Incretins are metabolic hormones that stimulate a decrease in glucose levels in the blood and they have been implicated in glycemic regulation in the remission phase of type 1 diabetes. Here is the latest research.

Chromatin Regulation and Circadian Clocks

The circadian clock plays an important role in regulating transcriptional dynamics through changes in chromatin folding and remodelling. Discover the latest research on Chromatin Regulation and Circadian Clocks here.

Long COVID-19

“Long Covid-19” describes illness in patients who are reporting long-lasting effects of the SARS-CoV-19 infection, often long after they have recovered from acute Covid-19. Ongoing health issues often reported include low exercise tolerance and breathing difficulties, chronic tiredness, and mental health problems such as post-traumatic stress disorder and depression. This feed follows the latest research into Long Covid.

Spatio-Temporal Regulation of DNA Repair

DNA repair is a complex process regulated by several different classes of enzymes, including ligases, endonucleases, and polymerases. This feed focuses on the spatial and temporal regulation that accompanies DNA damage signaling and repair enzymes and processes.